Content posted July 9, 2017

Jewish Organizations Involved in Rescue and Relief of Jews

 

Notable Jewish Rescue Organizations - Descriptions of Selected Jewish Rescue Organizations

 

 


List of Jewish Rescue Organizations (with Staff and Volunteers)

*killed; +arrested; tortured

 

Achdut ha-Am (Hebrew: Unity of the Nation), Yishuv Organization, Palestine, established 1938

 

 

Action, Vienna, Austria

Paul Haller (Revisionist)

Hermann Flesch (Revisionist)

 

 

Action Committee (Comité d’Action), France

 

 

Action and Defense Committee of Jewish Youth Comité d’Action et de Défense de la Jeunesse Juive), France 

 

 

Action Group Against Deportation, see Service Andre

 

 

Advisory Council on European Jewish Affairs of the World Jewish Congress, New York, NY, established 1942

Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, chairman

Nahum Goldman, head, Dept. Europe

Leon Kubowitzki, Jewish Affairs

 

 

Af-Al-Pi (“Despite Everything”), Perl Transporte; founded by members of Irgun, Haganah & Zionist Revisionists

Dr. Willi Perl, founder and director

Vienna, Austria – Heinrich Haller, Tury Deutsch, Paul Haller, Fritz Herrenfeld, Paul Elbogen (member, Betar), Mrs. Lola Bernstein, Robert Mandler*, Eliyahu Gleser, Emil Faltyn, Mrs. Liesel “Sonnenkind”-Kant (officer)

Baltic countries – Abraham Stavsky (Poland), Mr. Gedalja “Bata,” Sime Spitzer*, Mrs. Jacobson

Czechoslovakia – Frantisek Gross, Karel Gross, Robert Mandler*

Hungary – Dr. Imre Kalman

Romania – Dr. Enzer, Mila Epstein (Bucharest), Dr. Geiger, Dr. Meissner, Rafaeli, Schwartzmann

Turkey – Josef Klarman (Istanbul), Lipa Chaimovic

Yugoslavia – The Dragoner family

Moshe Krivoshein-Gallili, Bertsche Kornmehl, Paul Lustig, Otto Seidmann, Israel Waksberg, Eric Wolf, Dr. Felix Herzig, Moritz Pappenheim, Karl Kotek Goldstein, Walter Perl, Julius Steinfeld, Dr. Maks, Martha Hausner, Hertha Mandler

 

 

Agriculture et Artisanat, Paris, 1933-1935

 

 

Agricultural Committee, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, England, 1939-1940, see American Joint Distribution Committee

 

 

Agricultural Training Schools (Hakhsharot), Youth Movements

Bohemia-Moravia

Mi-Ha Agricultural Training School, Prague

Youth Aliya Agricultural Training School, Prague

Denmark

Agricultural Training School

Netherlands

Loodsdrect Agricultural Training Camp

Gouda Agricultural Training Camp

France

Germany

Romania

Slovakia

 

 

Agriculture et Artisant, Paris, France, 1933-1935

 

 

Agro-Joint, see American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

 

 

Agudas Israel of America, Inc., New York, NY, established 1921, members: 29,300, publication: Jewish Voice; umbrella organization for Agudath Israel Youth Council of America

Eliezer Silver, president

S. Eichenstein, executive director (1943)

Officers:

Solomon Friedman, vice president

Solomon Hyman

Shlomo Travis

Benjamin W. Hendles, executive director (1941)

O. Baumel, charman, executive board

 

 

Agudath Israel Youth Council of America, established 1922, New York, NY; Immigration and Refugee Division established 1940; Agudath Israel of Upper Manhattan, New York, established 1939 by Jewish refugees from Germany; operated under umbrella organization, Agudath Israel of America

 

 

Agudat (Agudas) Israel World Organization (Hebrew Union of Israel), Poland, later Geneva, established 1912 (subsidiary group Poale Agudas Israel, established 1922), worked with Hilfsverein für Jüdische Flüchtling (HIJEFS; Relief Organization for Jewish Refugees Abroad) and Rescue Committee of the Orthodox Rabbi in the United States (Va’ad Ha Hatsalah)

Jacob Rosenheim, co-founder, president, 1929-1965 - USA

Chaim Yisroel Eiss, leader

Moritz Pappenheim

Julius Steinfeld

Nathan Schwalb

Henny Bornstein

Mr. Aronson

Matthew Muller (papers, USHMM Archives)

Dr. Isaac Lewin – USA

Meir Shenkolewski – USA

 

 

Agudath Israel Youth Council of America, New York, NY, USA, established 1922

 

 

Aid Commission for Jewish Refugees, see DELASEM

 

 

Aid Committee for Jewish War Victims (Aid aux Israélites victims de la Guerre), Belgium

 

 

Aid Committee of the Grand Rabbinet Istanbul, Turkey

 

 

Aid to Mothers, France

 

 

Al Domi (No Silence)

Rabbi Binyamin, Turkey, Palestine

 

 

Algemeiner Yidisher Arbeiterbund in Lita, Poilen un Rusland (General Jewish Workers’ Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia)

 

 

Aliyah B (Bet), see Mossad le Aliyah Bet, Jewish Agency for Palestine

 

 

Aliyat Yeladim Va-No’ar (Hebrew: Youth Aliyah), established as Jüdische Jugendhilf in 1932, see Youth Aliyah

 

 

Alliance American Lithuanian Jews, USA

 

 

Alliance Israélite Universelle (AIU), Paris, France, see Universal Israelite Alliance, established in Paris in 1860

Comité de la Rue Amelot

 

 

Alliance Israélite Universelle of America, Central Committee, Philadelphia, PA, established 1940, 3 branches

Samuel Edelman, chairman

Frank Hahn, Jr.

 

 

La Amelot (Rue Amelot Committee, see Amelot Committee), France (Colonie Scolaire)

Abraham Alperine, leader

Henry Bulawko (Hashomer Hatzair)

Léo Glaeser, co-founder, treasurer

Yehuda Jakubowicz, secretary

David Rappaport, co-founder

Dr. Eugene Minkowski (OSE)

Fernand Musnik (UGIF leader)

Margaret Schachnowski (non-Jewish), Children’s Commission

Mrs. Rina (Bund)

Broniek Ezerowicz

Joseph Byl, leader

David Oks

Mrs. Ester Greenberg

Rubin Grinberg

 

 

American Association of Former Austrian Jurists, established 1941, inactive 1976, New York, NY, founded by former Austrian immigrants

 

 

American Association of Former European Jurists, established 1939, inactive as of 1970, New York, NY; original name was American Association of Former German Jurists

Bruno Weil

 

 

American Association of University Women, Inc. (AAUW), established 1882, Washington, DC; Committee on International Relations, Committee on Refugee Aid established 1940; helped place European refugee academics, raised funds

 

 

American Committee for Hungarian War Refugees, USA

 

 

American Committee for the Aid of Jews in Galicia, USA

 

 

American Committee for the Relief and Resettlement of Yemenite Jews, New York, NY, Palestine, in cooperation with United Yemenite Community of Palestine and Federation of Yemenite Jews in America

Moses I. Feuerstein, chairman, 1943

Zacharia Gluska, executive director

Mortimer J. Propp, chairman, 1941

Arthur Sherr, vice chairman, 1941

Abraham Mazer, treasurer, 1941

 

 

American Committee for the Relief of Jews in Poland, USA

 

 

American Committee of OSE, Inc., The American Committee for the Protection of the Health of Jews, established 1929, closed 1971, New York, NY, USA, affiliated with TOZ, Jewish Health Protection Society of Poland; Publication: American OSE Review

Albert Einstein, honorary chair

Israel Wechler, chairman, board of directors

A. J. Rongy, M.D., chairman, executive committee

Dr. Eng. B. Pregel, co-chairman

J. J. Golub, M.D., chairman, 1933-1937

D. Jedabnik, M.D., vice chairman

Dr. Eng. Charles Breyner, treasurer

L. Wulman, M.D., secretary

J. Bruztkus, M.D., council, honorary committee

L. Lazarowitz, M.D., council

Emanuel Libman, honorary committee

Milton J. Rosenau, honorary committee

Pierre Dreyfus

Mrs. Pierre de Gunzbourg

L. Rosenthal, M.D.

M. Sudarski, M.D.

Mr. E. Weil

 

 

American Council for Warsaw Jews, USA, 1942

 

 

American Council of Jews from Austria, USA, established 1942

 

 

American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, USA, established 1944; HIAS-ICA co-founder

 

 

American Economic Committee for Palestine, New York, NY, established 1932

Edward A. Norman

 

 

American Emergency Committee for Zionist Affairs (ECZA), New York, NY, established 1939; became American Zionist Emergency Council in 1942; Constituent bodies: Zionist Organization of America; Hadassah; Mizrachi; Poale Zion, members: 29

Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, chairman 1939-1942

Louis E. Levinthal, chairman, office committee

Arthur Lourie, executive secretary

 

 

American Federation for Lithuanian Jews, Inc., New York, NY, USA, established 1937

Elias Fife, president

I. Rozovsky, executive director

Frank Epstein, secretary

 

 

American Federation for Polish Jews, New York, NY, USA, established 1940, see Federation of Polish Jews in America, New York, NY, USA, established 1908, affiliated with the World Federation of Polish Jews, members: 65,000, publication: Polish Jews

Benjamin Winter, national chairman, president, 1923-1943

Z. Tygel, executive director, 1923-1940

Joseph Tannenbaum, president, 1923-1940

Jacob Brown, vice president

Abraham Goldberg, vice president

Mrs. A. P. Kaplan, vice president

S. Margoshes, vice president

H. J. Rubenstein, vice president

Abraham Werman, vice president

Nathan Korn, district vice president

Sol Ferleger, district vice president

I. Finkelstein, district vice president

Henry Szoszkies

Morris Blumenstock, director

Women’s Division, members: 200:

Mrs. A. P. Kaplan, president

Mrs. J. Brown, vice president

Mrs. H. Glanz, vice president

Mrs. Esther Rosen, vice president

Mrs. H. Mechutan, vice president

Clara Raphael, treasurer

Mrs. Ray Cohen, secretary

Mrs. B. Tykulsker, financial secretary

 

 

American Federation of Jews from Austria, Inc., established 1940, New York, NY; represented six Austrian refugee and immigrant groups in NY

 

 

American Federation of Jews from Central Europe, Inc., New York, NY, USA, established 1939, renamed the American Federation of Jews from Germany and Austria in 1940

Rudolf Callman, president

Ernst Fraenkel, executive secretary

Max Gruenewald, founder

Max M. Warburg, founder

Nathan Stein, founder

Frederick W. Borchardt, founder

 

 

American Friends of a Jewish Palestine, New York, NY, USA, established 1939, see also Bergson Group, members: 1,000, publication: The Answer

William G. Stanton, chairman, national executive board

William B. Ziff, honorary chairman

Louis Germain, treasurer

Gabriel Wechsler, secretary

 

 

American Friends of Polish Jews, New York, NY, USA, established 1941, members: 500, publication: bulletins

George M. Geigin, president

Z. Tygel, executive vice president

 

 

American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), part of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, headquarters Philadelphia, PA; the American Friends Service Committee was not a Jewish organization.  However, numbers of Jews volunteered in Europe under its auspices; it was particularly active in German, France, Spain and Portugal, established 1917; received Nobel Peace Prize in 1947

Rufus Jones (USA), Leader

Clarence Pickett (USA), Chairman

Elizabeth Abegg (1967), Berlin, Germany (1882-1957)

David J. Blickenstaff (USA), Lisbon, Portugal; Spain

Phillip B. Conrad (USA), Lisbon, Portugal

Lindsey Nobel, USA, France

Howard E. Kershner (USA), Marseilles, France, 1940-1941

Roswell D. McClelland (USA), Southern France, later WRB representative, Geneva, Switzerland, 1944-1945

Henry Harvey, Vichy Representative

Burns Chalmers, Marseilles, Southern France

Gilbert Lesage, Head, Service Social des Estrangers (SSE)

Helga Holbek

Alice Resch Synnestvedt (“Miss Resch)

Gerhard Schwersensky (b. 1909)

Ilse Schwersensky (b. 1904

Mr. Heinz Hagen, Berlin

Celine Roth de Neufville, Southern France

 

 

American Guild for German Cultural Freedom, established 1936, dissolved 1940, New York, NY

Hubertus Prinz zu Loewenstein, founder, general secretary

Alvin Johnson, officer

Oswald G. Villard, officer

 

 

American Jewish Committee (AJC), New York, NY, USA, established 1906, later part of Joint Emergency Committee for European Jewish Affairs, members, corporate: 327, publication: Contemporary Jewish Record

Cyrus Adler (d. 1940), president

Solomon Marcuse Strook, president, 1940

Maurice Wertheim, president, 1941-1943

Joseph M. Proskauer (1877-1971), president, 1943-

Mrs. Jacobson

Dr. Max Gottschalk

Morris D. Waldheim, executive vice president

Harry Schneiderman, assistant secretary

Abram I. Elkus, honorary vice president

Irving Lehman

Lessing J. Rosenwald, vice president

Carl J. Austrian

Samuel D. Leidsdorf, treasurer

Louis E. Kirsten, chairman

Sidney Wallach, associate secretary

Executive committee:

Felix M. Warburg

James N. Rosenberg

Lewis L. Strauss

Samuel I. Rosenman

 

 

American Jewish Conference, USA, established August 1943, disbanded 1949;

Henry Monsky, founder (president, B’nai B’rith)

Abba Hillel Silver

 

 

American Jewish Congress (AJC), affiliated with the World Jewish Congress, New York, NY, established 1917, reconstituted 1922, reorganized 1938, see also Women’s Division, American Jewish Congress; Publication: Congress Weekly, reports

Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, leader, chairman 1917-1949, president 1925-1929 and 1935-1945

Joseph L. Tanenbaum, chairman, executive committee, 1929-1936, vice president, 1943-1945

Bernard Deutsch, president  1929-1935

Lillie Shultz, administrative secretary

Nathan D. Perlman, vice president

Louis Lipsky, chairman, governing council

Carl Sherman, chairman, administrative committee

Max F. Wolf, chairman, council of organizations

Jacob Leichtman, treasurer

 

 

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC; Jewish Joint), New York, NY, USA, American Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation, Agro-Joint (Colonization Department of JDC), Trans Migration Bureau, American Joint Reconstruction Foundation (established 1924), “Joint,” established 1914; publication: JDC Digest

Alexander Kahn, a JDC founder 1914, vice-chairman 1937-1961

Edward M. M. Warburg, vice chairman 1938-1939, co-chairman 1940, chairman 1941-1943, 1946-1965, hon. chairman 1966-

Felix Warburg, chairman 1914-1932, hon. chairman 1932-1937, ASJFS hon. pres.

Mrs. Felix M. Warburg, hon. chairman

Paul Baerwald, hon. chairman 1932-1941, 1943-1945, hon. chair 1941-1943, treasurer 1920-1931, 1946-1947, 1946-1961

James N. Rosenberg, hon. chairman, exec. comm. vice chairman 1923-1939

Cyrus Adler, JDC founder 1914, chairman cult. comm. 1920-1940

James L. Becker, chairman National Council

Bernhard Kahn, JDC founding managing director 1924-1939, vice chairman 1950-1955

Herbert Katzki, exec. staff 1936-1979; Eurexco secretary 1939-1944; asst. dir. gen. 1951-1964; deputy dir. gen., 1965-1967; asst. & assoc. exec. vice chairman 1968-1979

Noel Aronovichi, founding secretary general 1928-1940, vice managing director 1939-1940

Albert H. Lieberman, vice-chairman National Council

Joseph C. Hyman, executive vice chairman 1940-1946, JDC secretary 1925-1939, JDC vice chairman 1947-1949

Herbert H. Lehman, vice-chairman

George Backer, vice-chairman

David M. Bressler, vice-chairman 1937-1942, chairman budget and scope committee 1933-1940

Alfred Jaretzki, Jr., vice-chairman 1941-1942, 1944-1946, chairman S. American Comm. 1939-1942

Harold F. Linder, vice-chairman 1941-1942, 1944-1946, chairman finance, budget & scope committees 1939-1942

Solomon Lowenstein, vice-chairman 1939-1941, exec. comm. 1919-1941

William Rosenwald, vice-chairman

William J. Shroder, vice-chairman

M. C. Sloss, vice-chairman

Jonah B. Wise, JDC/UJA campaigns national chairman 1931-1950, vice-chairman 1937-1959, exec. comm. 1931-1959

Alexqander A. Landesco, treasurer 1942-1944, personnel comm. chairman 1941-1942

I. Edwin Goldwasser, treasurer

Marco F. Hellman, treasurer

Abner Bregman, associate treasurer

Charles J. Liebman, rec. chairman 1934-1945, Europe rep. 1933-1934

Evelyn M. Morrissey, exec. staff 1915-1961, assistant treasurer 1939-1970

Mrs. H. B. L. Goldstein, comptroller

Isidor Coons, director of fund raising 1930-1949; exec. vice chairman UJA 1939-1949

Moses A. Levitt, secretary 1940-1946, 1948-1965, exec. staff 1929-1933, 1940-1946

Aron Teitelbaum, exec. comm. 1921-1932; board of directors 1931-1944

Henry Ittelson, exec. comm. 1940-1942, board of directors 1939-1942

Harold Trobe, exec. staff 1944-1956, 1966-1977; JDC Lisbon 1944-1945

B. Charney Vladeck, exec. comm. 1920-1922, 1926-1938

Peter Wiernik, exec. comm. 1921-1935, board of directors 1931-1935

James Marshal, exec. comm. 1929-1944, board of directors 1931-1944, ASJFS subscriber

Leo Jung, chairman cult. and relig. comm., 1943-1978

JDC Board of Directors (alphabetically)

Henry Ittelson, exec. comm. 1940-1942, board of directors 1939-1942

James Marshal, exec. comm. 1929-1944, board of directors 1931-1944, ASJFS subscriber

Dudley D. Sicher 1934-1938

Aron Teitelbaum, exec. comm. 1921-1932; board of directors 1931-1944

Peter Wiernik, exec. comm. 1921-1935, board of directors 1931-1935

European Executive Council (Eurexco)

Dr. Bernhard Kahn, vice chairman 1922-1924; chairman 1924-1938; hon. chairman; JDC founding managing director 1924-1939; JDC vice chairman 1950-1955

Morris C. Troper, chairman European Executive Council 1938-1942

Joseph J. Schwartz, vice-chairman 1940-1941, chairman 1942-1949, European Executive Council

Nathan Katz, secretary-general 1937-1939

Herbert Katzki, Eurexco secretary 1939-1944

William Bein 1921-1940

Isaac Giterman, JDC Poland staff member 1919-1943, director JDC Poland 1939-1943

David K. Schweitzer, vice chairman 1926-1939; overseas staff 1920-1942; JDC Recon. Found., vice managing director 1928-1940; DORSA manager 1941-1942

Solomon Trone, Sousa Project, Eurexco, DORSA 1939-1940

Herbert Katzki, exec. staff 1936-1979; Eurexco secretary 1939-1944; asst. dir. gen. 1951-1964; deputy dir. gen., 1965-1967; asst. & assoc. exec. vice chairman 1968-1979

Isaac (Yitzhak) Gitterman*, head, Central Committee

New York, USA – Headquarters Staff

Morris Troper, Director of European Affairs 1938-1942

Nathan C. Belth, JDC publicity 1935-1940

Harry D. Biele, staff member 1944-1947; comm. secretary, Latin America, 1944-1945; Agro Joint, 1944-1945; deputy director Germany, 1945-1947

Frederick W. Borchardt, JDC representative who conducted refugee fact-finding missions to S. America, 1936-1940

Henriette K. Buchman, staff member 1934-1962, comm. secretary Cult. and Relig., 1937-1962, Poland and Eastern Europe 1941-1943

Philip Skorneck, exec. staff 1944-1949

Lillian Cantor, staff member 1921-1971

Seymour S. Cohen, JDC publicity director 1944-1945

Nathan Weisman, staff member 1941-1944

Bernice Kandel, publicity dept. 1944

Bertrand S. Jacobson, staff 1936-1938, 1940-1942, 1945-1947

J. B. Lightman, exec. staff 1933-1936

Ben L. Simon 1931-1938

Roman Slobodin, pub. dir. 1941

Louis H. Sobel, assistant secretary 1944-1946

Dorothy L. Speiser, exec. staff 1921-1968

Alfred H. Katz, statistics dept. 1937-1938

George Natanson, NY staff 1933

Robert Pilpel, exec. asst. NY 1946-1952; exec. staff 1939-1952; Agro Joint secretary 1940-1944, 1948-1952

Louis Popkin, publicity department, 1932-1935

Herbert J. Seligman, pub. info. dept. director 1935-1938

Zelda F. Popkin, publicity director, 1943-1944

Nathan Reich, dir. research dept. 1944-1948

Ruth M. Rojek, 1938-1943

Irwin Rosen, 1939-1941, 1942-1948

Julia Rubenstein 1933-1940

Overseas staff

Joseph J. Schwartz, overseas staff 1939-1950, JDC secretary 1940, Eurexo vice chairman 1940-1941

Noel Aronovici 1919-1956

William Bein 1921-1954

Laura Margolis Jarblum, overseas staff 1939-1956, 1958-1974; JDC rep. Cuba 1939-1941; JDC rep. Shanghai 1941-1943; JDC rep. Sweden 1944 (Oct.-Dec.); JDC rep. Belgium 1945-1946; JDC rep. France 1946-1953; staff member JDC Malben 1954-1956, 1958-1974

Moses Beckelman 1939-1942, Lithuania 1939-1941, Latin America 1939-1941

Charles H. Jordan, 1941-1943, 1945-1967; JDC rep. Caribbean 1941-1943; JDC rep. Far East 1945-1947; director general of overseas operations 1956-1967; JDC exec. vice-chairman 1966-1967

Charles J. Leibman, JDC rep. in Europe 1933-1934

Mordechai Kessler 1943-1945

Arthur D. Greenleigh, overseas staff 1944-1946

Louis J. Platt, field representative 1936-1938

Joseph A. Rosen 1921-1942

Emanuel Rosen, 1939-1942, 1947-1954

David K. Schweitzer, vice chairman 1926-1939; overseas staff 1920-1942; JDC Recon. Found., vice managing director 1928-1940; DORSA manager 1941-1942

Jacob Trobe, overseas staff 1944-1948

Arthur A. Fishzohn, overseas staff 1944-1946; JDC representative Turkey 1944-1945; JDC representative Bulgaria 1946

Manuel Siegel, overseas staff 1940-1947, Cuba 1940-1941, Shanghai 1941-1945

J. B. Lightman, representative, South America 1933-1950

Solomon Trone, Sousa Project, Eurexco, DORSA 1939-1940

Reuben Resnick, 1943-1946; rep. Near East, Portugal & Italy 1944-1946

Algiers – Eli Gozlan

Argentina – S. Pereira Mendes, 1936; Jacob P. Lightman, 1943

Austria: Vienna – Josef L. Dewenherz

Belgium – Laura Margolis (Jarblum), 1945-1946

Bulgaria – Arthur A. Fishzohn

Caribbean – Charles H. Jordan, 1941-1943 (overseas staff 1941-1943, 1945-1967; JDC rep. Far East 1945-1947; director general of overseas operations 1956-1967; JDC exec. vice-chairman 1966-1967)

China: Shanghai – Laura L. Margolis (Jarblum), 1941-1943, Manuel Siegel 1941-1945, C. Brahn, chairman, J. Bitker, Abraham Levenspiel

Columbia – Lazaro Zelwer

Costa Rica – Louis Feinblat, Leon J. Obermayer

Croatia - Klein

Cuba – Laura L. Margolis (Jarblum), 1939-1941; Jack Brandon, 1938; Alberto H. Kates; Albert Hartman; S. L. Maduro; Milton D. Goldsmith, Aug. 1939-Jan. 1940; Manuel Siegel, 1940-1941; Charles H. Jordon; Robert Pilpel, 1939-1943; Oscar Gurfinkel; Joseph Kleinman, Joint Rel. Comm. 1939-1940; Rose M. Rabinoff, Cuba Joint Relief Comm. 1941-1943, Ester Margolis 1939-1940

Curaçao – Milton H. M. Maduro, Rabbi I. J. Cardozo (Joose Hulp-Comite)

Czechoslovakia: Prague – Dr. Franz Friedman, Erich Khon

Dominican Republic – Rebeccah M. Reyher (exec. secretary, 1940-1943), David K. Schweitzer, Dr. Walter Blum (Joint Relief Committee; JRC)

Ecuador – Oscar Rocca

England: London – Donald B. Hurwitz, Harold F. Linder 1945, David H. Sulzberger 1943

Far East: Charles H. Jordan, 1945-1947

France: Laura Margolis (Jarblum), 1946-1953

France: Paris – Herbert Katzki 1940, Dorothy Manson 1939-1940

France: Southern France – Jules Jefroykin, Maurice Brener, Joseph Croustillon, Sholomo Steinhorn

Germany: Berlin – Otto Hirsch*, Paul Meyerheim

Greece – Vittorio Velobra

Guatemala

Haiti

Hungary: Budapest – Bertram S. Jacobson (co-director 1940-Dec. 1941), Bella Wagner, Eppler, Josef Blum (co-director 1940-1944), Raoul Wallenberg, Swedish consul, Carl Lutz, Swiss vice consul

India: Bombay

Iran: Teheran – Harry Viteles, Charles Passman (exec. staff Near East & Palestine 1943-1958)

Italy – Vittorio Valobra, Emanuel Rosen, Giuseppe Levi, Kart Peiser (JDC rep. North Africa, Italy, 1943-1944), Max Perlman (JDC rep. North Africa, Italy, 1943-1944), Reuben Resnick (overseas staff 1943-1946; rep. Near East, Portugal & Italy 1944-1946)

Jamaica

Japan: Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama – Ernst Baerwald

Latvia: Riga

Libya: Tripoli

Lithuania – Moses Beckelman, Isaac (Yitzhak) Giterman*, Grodensky, Solomon Taraszansky

Luxemburg

Mexico

Morocco

Near East – Reuben Resnick (overseas staff 1943-1946; rep. Near East, Portugal & Italy 1944-1946), Charles Passman (exec. staff Near East & Palestine 1943-1958)

The Netherlands: Amsterdam – Gertrude van Tijn, H. Kalb

North Africa – Donald B. Hurwitz, Kurt Peiser (JDC rep. North Africa, Italy, 1943-1944), Max Perlman (JDC rep. North Africa, Italy, 1943-1944)

Palestine – Judah Leon Magnus, advisory comm. chairman 1943-1944

Panama – Rabbi Nathan Witkin (Jewish Welfare Board; JWB)

The Philippines: Manila – Laura L. Margolis

Poland: Warsaw – Isaac (Yitzhak) Gitterman* (staff member 1919-1943, director 1939-1943), David Guzik 1920-1946, Lieb Neustadt, Emmanuel Ringelblum, Isaac Bornstein, Stephan Luxemburg 1926-1938, Solomon Taraszansky (JDC Poland 1932-1939; JDC Lithuania 1939-1941); closed December 21, 1941, see also Jewish Mutual Aid Society (ZTOS), Warsaw, Poland

Portugal: Lisbon – d’Esaguy, Daniel Sequerra, Robert Pilpel (JDC Lisbon 1944-1945), Reuben Resnick (overseas staff 1943-1946; rep. Near East, Portugal & Italy 1944-1946), Harold Trobe, 1944-1945, Herbert Katzki, Solomon Trone

Romania: Wilhelm Filderman, Bertrand S. Jacobson 1940-1942, Fred Saraga, Dr. Baruch Costiner, Samuel Singher, Wilhelm Fischer

Serbia - Spitzer

Slovakia: Gisi Fleischmann*, Josef Blum, Bertrand S. Jacobson 1940-1942, Robert K. Füredi; confidential representatives: A. Frischer, Kovasz, Krasniansky, Dr. Revecz, Dr. Rosenberg, Rosenthal K. Stein

South America – Alfred Jaretzki, 1939-1942 (JDC vice-chairman 1941-1942, 1944-1946); Noel Aronovici; F. W. Borchard, 1936-1940; M. D. Goldsmith, 1940-1941; Moses Beckelman, 1941-1942; L. H. Sobel, 1943; Jacob B. Lightman, 1943-1944; Gertrude D. Pinsky, exec. staff

Uruguay & Europe, 1944-1946; S. Pereira Mendes, 1936

Spain: Barcelona – Samuel Sequerra (posing as representative of the Portuguese Red Cross)

Spain: Madrid – Paul Block, David Blinkenstaff (non-Jew)

Sweden – Laura L. Margolis (Jarblum), Oct.-Dec. 1944, Manuel Siegal, Marcus Levine, Ragnar Gottfarb

Switzerland: Geneva – Saly Mayer

Tangier – Jacob Laredo

Turkey – Arthur A. Fishzohn

Uruguay – Gertrude Pinsky, exec. staff Uruguay & Europe, 1944-1946

Venezuela: Caracas – Lazaro Zelwer (HIAS-ICA)

 

American Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation , USA, established 1924 (see Domincan Republic Settlement Association, DORSA, and Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia)

Joseph A. Rosen, president 1927-1938, director 1924-1942, DORSA vice president 1939-1942

Maurice B. Hexter, president, 1943-1952, chairman of board or president DORSA 1948-1982

Abner Bregman, treasurer

Jamers N. Rosenberg, chairman 1924-1942, ASJFS president 1928-1948, DORSA chairman board of directors 1941-1947, hon. chairman 1947-1970

Joseph C. Hyman, assistant treasurer

Robert Pilpel, secretary 1940-1944, 1948-1952; exec. staff 1939-1952; Latin Amer. Comm. secretary 1939-1944

Board of directors: Abner Bregman, James H. Becker, Alexander Kahn, Bernhard Kahn, Alfred Jaretzki, Jr., Joseph C. Hyman, Harold F. Linder, Joseph A. Rosen, Edward M. M. Warburg, Miss Evelyn M. Morrissey

Trustees: James N. Rosenberg, chairman; James H. Becker, vice-chairman; Paul Baerwald, treasurer; George Backer, Herbert H. Lehman, James Marshall, Lewis L. Strauss, Eeward M. M. Warburg, Jonah B. Wise, William Rosenwald, Alexander Kahn; Robert Pilpel, assistant secretary

  

American Joint Reconstruction Foundation (American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee), France

 

American Joint Reconstruction Foundation (Foundation), USA, established 1924

Sir Leonard Cohen, president 1929-1934 (ICA president)

Sir Osmond d’Avigdor Goldsmid, president 1934-1940 (ICA president)

Leonard G. Montefiore, 1940-1944 (ICA president)

Bernard Flexner, vice president 1932-1938

A. A. Landesco 1938-1944

Bernard Kahn (JDC), co-managing director 1934-1939

David J. Schweitzer, co-managing director 1939-1941

Louis Oungre (ICA), co-managing director 1924-1941

Noel Arondvici, secretary general 1924-1941

American members – David M. Bressler, Meyer Gillis, Alexander Kahn, Alexender A. Landesco (governor), Herbert H. Lehman, Felix M. Warburg, Joseph C. Hyman (secretary to American members)

ICA members, Great Britain – Dr. Julius Blau, Sir Osmond d’Avigdor Golsmid, Dr. Alfred Klee, Leonard G. Montefiore, Emil Oettinger, Marquess of Reding

Eastern Euorpean members – Dr. Leon Bramson, Dr. Isaac Joffe, Dr. Albert Sondheimer, Mr. Rafal Szereszowski, Senator Jacob Trockenheimer, Mr. Isaac Ussoskin

 

Committee on Refugee Aid in Europe, established February 1939

E. M. M. Warburg, chairman

Herbert Katzki, secretary

 

Committee on Refugee Aid in Central and South America—Latin American Committee, established February 1944

Alfred Jaretski, Jr., chairman, 1939-1942

Isaac H. Levy, chairman, 1942-1944

Robert Pilpel, secretary, 1939-1944

Harry Biel, secretary, 1944

 

Emergency Committee on Jewish Refugees, 1935-1938

 

Joint Relief Committee (JRC), Cuba

Alberto H. Kates

S. L. Maduro

Albert Hartman

Jack Brandon

 

Junior Division of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

Officers: Pauline Baerwald Falk, hon. chairman; Lois Hollander Cole, national chairman; Tracy H. Ferguson, national vice-chairman; Milton S. Pratiner, national secretary

 

Transmigration Bureau (TB), New York and Lisbon, Portugal

 

Canadian Emigration Project, Iberian Penninsula

   

American Jewish K C Fraternity, Inc., Max Mainzer Memorial Foundation, Inc., established 1939, Flushing, NY

 

 

American Jewish Relief Committee (AJRC), USA, 1933-1944

 

 

American Joint Recontruction Foundation, see American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, France

 

 

American Leagues for a Free Palestine

 

 

American League for the Defense of Jewish Rights, USA

Abraham Coralnik, founder

Samuel Untermyer

 

 

American National Committee of the World Union for Preserving Health of Jews (OSE), USA, established 1929

Dr. J. J. Golub, chairman 1933-1937

Dr. A. J. Rongy, 1937

Albert Einstein, honorary chairman

 

 

American Organization for Rehabilitation and Training (ORT) Federation, New York, NY, USA, established 1922; Publication: ORT Economic Review

George Backer, national president

B. Charney Vladek, national chairman 1932-1938

Aaron B. Tart, executive vice chairman

Philip Block, executive director

Louis B. Boudin, chairman, board of directors

Edgar Salinger, chairman, national plan and scope committee

Joseph Weinberg, treasurer

 

 

American Palestine Campaign, (APC; Yishuv), USA, established 1931

J. C. Hyman, incorporator, board member

 

 

American Philanthropic Fund (Rosenwald Estate; Rosenwald Family Capital Outlay Fund), USA

   

 

American Pro-Falasha Committee, New York, NY, USA, established 1922

Hyman J. Reit, chairman

Joseph Zeitland, corporate secretary

Jacques Faitlovich, executive director

 

 

American Red Mogen David for Palestine, New York, NY, USA, established 1940, members: 2,000

Harry A. Pine, president

Herman Zvi Quitman, secretary

 

 

American Relief for France (ARF), USA, established mid-1944

 

 

American Representatives of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, New York, NY, USA, established 1932, members: 115

Morris Rothenberg, chairman, administrative committee

Julian Mack, honorary chairman

Steven S. Wise, co-chairman

Horace Stern, vice chairman

Robert Szold, vice chairman

James H. Becker, administrative committee

Mrs. Rose G. Jacobs, administrative committee

Alexander Kahn, administrative committee

Albert H. Lieberman, administrative committee

Louis Lipsky, administrative committee

Solomon Lowenstein, administrative committee

Samuel Shulman, administrative committee

 

 

American Zionist Emergency Council (AZEC), USA, established 1942; formerly American Emergency Committee for Zionist Affairs (ECZA), established 1939; member organizations: Zionist Organization of America; The Hadassah Women’s Zionist Organization; Labor Zionists; Mizrachi

Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver (1893-1963), chairman

Rabbi Stephen S. Wise (1874-1949), chairman 1942-1945

 

 

Anglo HICEM, see HICEM, see also German-Jewish Emigration Council, London, England

 

 

Anglo-Jewish Association (AJA), England, established 1871

Leonard Stein, chairman 1939-1949

Nevil Laski

Leonard Montefiore

 

 

Anonymous Company (Naamloze Vennootschap), NV Group, Limited Group, The Netherlands, established spring 1942

 

 

Anti-Defamation League of B’nai Brith (ADL), Chicago, IL, USA, established 1913; Publication: ADL Newsletter 

Richard E. Gutstadt

 

 

Antifascist Bialystok Cell, Bialystok Ghetto

Haika Grosman (1919-), Hashomer Hatsair

Marila Ruziecka

Liza Czapnik

Haska Belicka (Borenstein)

Ana Rud

Bronka Winicki (Klibawski)

 

Anti-Fascist Committee

Ilya G. Ehrenburg (1891-1967), leader

Itzik Fefer (1900-1952)

 

 

Anti-Fascist Struggle Organization, Kovno, Lithuania, Rudninki Forest, partisan group

Hiam Yellin* (1913-1943), leader

 

 

Arad, Hungary, Rescue Operations

Ben-Ephraim

Berl Schieber

Egon Roth

Franz Neuman

 

 

Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kinder and Jugen-Aliya-Association for Child and Youth Immigration to Palestine, Berlin, Germany, London, England, established 1934

 

 

Armée Juive (AJ), France, see Jewish Army

 

 

Armée Secrete (AS), see Secret Army

 

 

Assembly of Hebrew Orthodox Rabbis of America and Canada

 

 

Assistance Medicale aux Enfants d’Emigres, Paris, France, 1934-1940, established 1934

 

 

Associacao Beneficente Israelita Uniao,” Brazil

Dr. Paul Zander, president (Rio)

Dr. Ludwig Lorch, San Paolo

 

 

Associata Culturale a Femeilor Euree, see Cultural Association of Jewish Women, Romania

 

 

Association d’Elude d’Assistance Service, Algiers, North Africa

Elie Goslan, chairman

 

 

Association des Israelites Pratiquants (AIP), Marseilles, France, 1942, see Association of Observant Jews

 

 

Association Filantropica Israelita (AFI), until 1939, renamed Hilfsverein deutschsprechender Juden, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Montevideo, Uruguay

Mauricio Speyer, until June 1943

George Mayer, after June 1943

 

 

Association for Aid to German Emigrants (Vereinigung zur Unterstuetzung Deutscher Emigranten)

 

 

Association for Assistance to Poor Sick Jews, “Miszmeres Cholim,” Vilna, Lithuania

 

 

Association for Orphan Assistance and Child Protection, “Centros,” Vilna, Lithuania

 

 

Association “Hilf durch Arbeit” (Help Through Work), Vilna, Lithuania

 

 

Association of Bavarian Jewish Communities (Verband Bayerischer Israelitischer Gemeinen)

   

 

Association of Czechoslovak Immigrants, see Hitachdut Olei Czechoslovakia (HOC)

 

 

Association of German Immigrants, see Hitachdut Olei Germania (HOG)

 

 

Association of Hungarian Jews of America, Inc., New York, NY, USA, established 1921

Alexander Altman, president

Herman Quittman, chairman, board of directors

Albert Farkas, vice president

Carol Klein, vice president

Alex Klein, treasurer

G. Benes, executive director

 

 

Association of Italian Jewish Women, Milan.  The Association of Italian Jewish Women helped Austrain Jewish refugees in Italy. 

 

 

Association of Jewish Refugees (AJR), England, established London 1940

 

 

Association of Jewish Refugees, Melbourne, Australia

Dr. Herman Sanger (Melbourne)

Dr. Max Joseph (Sydney)

 

 

Association of Jewish Refugees and Immigrants from Poland, New York, NY, USA, established 1940, members: 500

Jacob Apenszlak, chairman 1940-1945

Ariel Tartakower, chairman of the council

H. Szoszkies, vice chairman

Leon Wulman, vice chairman

L. Jedwabnik, vice chairman

F. Tauber, vice chairman

Jacob Librach, treasurer

Ch. Finkelstein, secretary

M. Jahalom

Ch. Finkelstein, secretary of the board

G. Kowalski, executive secretary

 

 

Assocation of Jewish War Veterans (RJF), Germany

 

 

Association of Jewish Women, Vilna, Lithuania

 

 

Association of Jewish Women for Cultural Work in Palestine (Verband Judischer Frauen für Kulturarbeit in Palästina), Switzerland, established 1927

 

 

Association of Jewish Women in Italy (Associazione donne Ebrea d’Italia; ADEI), established 1920s; in 1931, ADEI joined the Italian Federation of WIZO and became ADEI-WIZO

 

 

Association of Jewish Writers and Journalists, Vilna, Lithuania

 

 

Association of Jews of Belgium (AJB; Association des Juifs en Belgique), established November 25, 1941

Chief Rabbi Solomon Ullman+

Nico Workum, deputy

Maurice Benedictus+, secretary

Solomon Vandenberg

Marie Blum-Albert

 

 

Association of Observant Jews (Association des Israelites Pratiquants; AIP), Marseilles, France, 1942

Joseph Bass

 

 

Association of Rabbis of Switzerland (Rabbinerverband der Schweiz)

 

 

Association of Swiss Jewish Communities (Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindbund)

George Brunschvig, president

 

 

Association of Swiss Jewish Refugee Aid Societies (Verband Schweizerischer Jüdischer Flüchtlingshilfen)

 

 

Association of the Christian Jews of Hungary (Magyarországi Kereszteny Zsidók Szövetsegé), see also Holy Cross Society of Budapest

 

 

Association of the Jews of Hungary (Magyarországi Zsidók Szövetsége), Jewish Council, Budapest

 

 

Association of Yugoslav Jews in the United States, Inc., New York, NY, USA, established 1941, members: 83

Otto Heinrich, president

Roman Smucker, secretary

 

 

Association pour le Retablissement des Institions et Oeuvres Juive en France et dans ses Possessions d’Outremer (ARIF), France, established 1944

 

 

Association “TOZ,” Vilna, Lithuania

 

 

Associazione donne Ebrea d’Italia (ADEI), see Association of Jewish Women in Italy

 

 

Dr. Yeheskel Atlas Partisan Unit, Derechin Ghetto Area, Lipiczany Forest, 120 members

Dr. Yeheskel Atlas* (1913-1942), commander

Bulat Division

Israel Bogdush

Samuel Bornstein

Chaim Joshua Lipshovitz* d. 1944

Eliyahu Lipshovitz*, deputy commander

Gershon Lipshovitz

Taibe Lipshovitz

 

 

Auschwitz-Birkenau-Monowitz Death Camp

Adek+* (d. 1944)

Mala Zimerbaum+* (d. 1944)

Edward Galinski+* (1922-1944)

Alfred Wetzler+

Walter Rosenberg+ (Rudolf Vrba)

Tusia+*

Regina+*

Roza Robota+* (d. 1944)

Ella Gartner+*

Raphael Zelwer+ (HDBM, Lódz Ghetto)

 

 

Auschwitz Fighting Group (Kampfgruppe Auschwitz), established August 1943 by Jews and non-Jews

 

 

Australian Jewish Welfare Society (AJWS), Australia, established 1937

Sir Samuel Cohen

 

 

Autonomous Aid Committee (Comisia Autonoma de Asistenta), Bucharest, Romania, see also Jewish Center (Centrala Evreilor), Romania

Wilhelm Filderman

Fred Saraga

 

 

Baldwin Fund, see Lord Baldwin Fund (Great Britain)

 

 

Baranovichi Jewish Partisan Unit, Polesye Area

 

 

Baranowicz Ghetto Jewish Council

Yehosha Izikson*, Council member, murdered

 

 

Baranowicz Ghetto Underground Fighters

Izzio Oshrowski+*/Iziu Osherevsky

Moshe Zilberman+*

Moshe Zalmanovicz

Eliezer Lidovsky+ (Poalai Zion), leader

Dr. Abramovsky, leader

Warshavsky (Jewish Police commander)

Chaim Oshman (sector commander)

Moma Kopelowicz (Antek), leader (Hashomer Hatzair)

Aharon Gorsky (Gursky; Hashomer Hatzair)

Shalom Karyckevicz (Hashomer Hatzair)

Elyosha (Alyosha) Zaryckevicz+, leader (Hashomer Hatzair)

Yehoshua Izikson*, Jewish Council Chair

Izikson’s secretary*

Moshe Top

Sarah Rubinowicz (Schiff)

Monik Mushinsky (sector commander)

Moshe Himmelfarb (sector commander)

Shalom Rev (sector commander)

Monik Dubkovsky (sector commander)

Chaim Stolowicky (sector commander)

Zigelbaum

Yitzhak (Jewish Police)

Hilka Borzszansky (courier)

Zeitlin

Noah Rotman

Sevek Ravic

Issy Ozochovsky*, partisan emmissary

 

Baranowicz Ghetto Police, 15 police and police commandant members of resistance

Warszawski*, police commandant

 

 

Baron de Hirsch Fund, New York, NY, USA, established 1891, affiliated with Jewish Agricultural Society, New York, NY

George W. Naumburg, president

George Bookstaver, managing director

Stanley M. Isaacs, vice president

Richard S. Goldman, treasurer

Ralph F. Colin, honorary secretary

Eugene S. Benjamin, managing director

Lewis L. Strauss

 

 

Herbert Baum Group, Berlin, Germany, established 1933; made up of Jews from German-Jewish Commrades’ Hiking League, Hashomer Hazair, the Black Gang and Habonim

Herbert Baum* (1912-1942)

Marianne Baum* (née Cohn; 1912-1942)

Martin Kochman* (1912-1943)

Sala Kochman* (1912-1942)

Gerd Meyer*

Hanni Meyer*

Suzanne Wesse*

Heinz Birnbaum*

Heinz Rotholz*

Hella Hirsch*

Alice Hirsch*

Edith Fraenkel*

Felix Heyman*

Werner Steinbrink*

Hilde Jadamowitz*

Hans Adler*

Hans Joachim*

Marianne Joachim

Seigi Rotholz*

Lotte Rotholz*

Lothar Salinger*

Hilde Löwy*

Herbert Budzislaw*

Helbut Newmannsky*

Hardel Heyman*

Kurt Bernard*

Herbert Meyer*

 

 

Baumats Jewish Partisan Unit

 

 

BDJ, see Bund Deutsch-Jüdischer Jugend Berba, Germany

 

 

Bendzin (Bedzin) Ghetto Partisans, Katowice District, Poland

Zvi Brandes* (1917-1943), Hashomer Hatzair, commander Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Baruch Gaftek* (1913-1943), Dror – Halutz Underground, commander Jewish resistance

Shlomo Lerner* (d. 1943), founder Halutz underground Zaglembia, commander Jewish Fighteing Organizations, ZOB

David Liver, ghetto underground

Frumka Plotnitzka* (1914-1943), leader underground resistance

Ezriel (“Yozek”) Koszok, leader underground resistance

Mordecai Anielewicz*, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB), Bedzin, Warsaw

Marcus Pohorila* (1912-1943)

Herschel Springer, leader, underground

Rebecca Granz* (1915-1943), also Czenstochow and Warsaw Ghetto

Israel Kozhuch* (1922-1943)

 

 

Beith Ahawah Children’s Home, Berlin, Germany

Beate Berger*, head

 

 

BELHICEM (Belgique-HICEM), see HICEM

 

 

Bereza-Kartuska Ghetto (Kartusskaya Beraza), Polesei District, Belorussia, had organized escapes from ghetto; occupied by Germans June 23, 1941; ghetto established July 1942; first action on July 15, 1942, when Jews of Ghetto “B” were murdered; ghetto destroyed October 15, 1942

Appelbaum (partisan)

Bakaler (partisan)

M. Tuchman

 

 

Bergson Group, USA, Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe, established June 1943, also Committee for a Jewish Army of Stateless and Palestinian Jews, see also Committee for an Army of Stateless and Palestinian Jews

Peter Bergson (Hillel Kook), head, founder

Samuel Merlin, executive director

Congressman Will Rogers, Jr., co-chair (non-Jew)

Ben Hecht, co-chair, writer

Ira Hirschman, 1943, WRB representative, Turkey, 1944-1945

Max Lerner

Leo Danenberg, Turkey

Pierre van Passen

Emil Lengyel

Louis Bromfield

Senator Edward Johnson, Colorado (non-Jew)

 

 

Betar Party, Palestine (operating as part of Aliyah Bet in Europe)

Eri Jabotinsky, leader, Palestine

Eliyahu Glazer, leader, Danzig, Poland

Vienna, Austria – Mordecai Katz, chief, Ehud Avriel

Prague, Czechoslovakia – Naftali Paltin

Latvia – Avraham Stavsky

Warsaw, Poland – Mordechai Katz, Aron Propes, Eisik Remba

Romania – “Erwin” Leibovich (commander of ship Parita), Dr. Jacob Schieber, Dr. Edgar Kanner, Mr. Gorenstein, Mila Epstein, Yaakov Ariel, Eliyahu Even

Bratislava, Slovakia – Yehoshua Citron, leader

Backa, Yugoslavia – Dr. Francis Ofner

 

 

Bialystok Partisans, Poland, Ghetto Fighters

Mordecai Tennenbaum* (1916-1943), commander, Jewish Fighting Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa; ZOB)

Daniel Moskowitz* (1908-1943), deputy commander, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Zvi Mersik* (1917-1943), Jewish Fighting Organization  (ZOB)

Ziphora Birman* (d. 1943), Chalutz Hatzair

Haska B’yelitska, Hashomer Hatzair, Anti-Fascist Committee, Poland

Milka Datner*

Chaim Friedman* (d. 1943), Dror, Jewish Fighting Organization  (ZOB)

Yeheskel Goldstein* (d. 1943), Halutz Hatzair

Chaika Grossman, Hashomer Hatzair, Anti-Fascist Committee liaison

Yerachmiel Kostin* (d. 1943), commander Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB), Bund

Sara Kupinska+* (d. 1943)

Malmed* [first name unknown] (1903-1943)

Lilka Malowitz* (d. 1943), member PPR and Jewish Fighteing Organization (ZOB)

Gedalyahu Petluk* (1920-1943), Hashomer Hatzair, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Kouba Rogozminski* (d. 1943), Hashomer Hatzair, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Gedalyahu Shayak

Yentil Sibovitz* (1924-1943), Hashomer Hatzair, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Ethel Sobol* (3. 1943), Dror, Jewish fighting Organization (ZOB)

Ephraim Strikuvsky* (d. 1943), Hashomer Hatzair

Yecheskel Tikutzki* (1922-1943), Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Abraham Viderman* (d. 1943)

Bronka Vinitzka, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Yocheved Weinstein* (1922-1943), Halutz Hatzair

Yocheved Weitzman*, Halutz Hatzair

Gura (Hanoch) Zelanza* (1919-1943), Jewish fighting Organization (ZOB)

Zorach Zilberberg* (1916-1943)

 

 

Biegma Brigade, see Voroshilov Jewish Partisans, Misiura Partisan Unit, Sernik Ghetto Underground

 

 

Bielski Partisans, Novogrudok Forests (Bielski Camp)

Tuvia Bielski (1906-1987), leader

Asael Bielski*

Zusya Bielski (Orozenikidze Division Partisans)

Aharon Bielski (1912-1995)

Benzion Bielski

Binyamin Baran

Yaakov Druk

Vevel Krupsky

 

 

Bikur Cholim, Switzerland

 

 

Blue Card, Inc., New York, NY, established 1940.  German-Jewish aid group.  Incorporated in 1943.  Helped Jewish immigrants.

 

 

B’nai Akiva (Mizrachi), Hungary

Rabbi Pinchas Tibor Rosenbaum

 

 

B’nai Brith International, Washington, DC, USA, established 1843; members: 163,000; publications: The National Jewish Monthly, B’nai B’rith News; see also Anti-Defamation League of B’nai Brith.  Aided Jews in Europe and immigrant refugees in the United States.

Henry Monsky, president

Maurice Bisgyer, secretary

Alfred M. Cohen, honorary president

Frank Goldman, vice president

Isidore M. Golden

A. B. Freyer

Sidney G. Kusworm, treasurer

 

 

B’nai Brith, Great Britain

 

 

B’nai Brith Hillel Foundations, Inc., established 1923, sponsored by B’nai Brith International; aided student refugees in the United States

 

 

Board of Deputies of Australian Jews, see also Executive Council of Australia Jewry

 

 

Board of Deputies of British Jews (BOD), Great Britain, established 1760

Neville Laski, president 1933-1939

Selig Brodetsky, president, 1939-1948

 

 

Board of the Jewish Community, Danzig, Poland

 

 

Bolotnikov Jewish Partisan Unit

 

 

Borba Parftisan Unit, Lipiczansk Forest, see also Diatlovo Gehtto Underground

 

 

Braslaw Ghetto Underground

Fisher

Lubawicz

 

 

Bratislava Rescue Committee

 

 

Briansk Jewish Partisan Unit

 

 

Bricha (“Flight”/”Escape”), 1944-1948

 

 

Brith Sholom, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, established 1905, aided fifty Jewish children from Germany in the 1930s

 

 

British Committee for Refugees from Czechoslovakia, Great Britian

 

 

Brodi Ghetto Fighters

Shmuel Weyler, CDR Underground Resistance, Zionist Revisionst

 

Brzesc Ghetto Underground, Belorussia, escape October 15, 1942, during ghetto liquidation

Michael Omalinski, led escape

Aryeh Sheinman

Shlomo Kandlik

Acksenbaum

Two underground organizations:

Nekama (Vengence)

 

 

Bulgarian American Committee

 

 

Bulgarian Zionist Federation

Albert Romano, Federation head

 

 

Bumazhkov Jewish Partisan Unit

 

 

Bund (Yiddisher Arbeter-Bund), Belgium, France, Lithuania, and Warsaw, Poland

 

 

Bund; League of German Youth (Bund Deutsch-Jüdischer Jugend; BDJ), established 1925, renamed Der Ring Bund Jüdischer Jugend in 1936, disbanded same year

Heinz Kellerman, head

 

 

Bund (G., Organization), Warsaw, Poland, joined Jewish Fighteing Organization (ZOB)

Abraham Blum (“Abrasha”)* (1905-1943)

Dr. Marek Edelman (b. 1921)

Leon Feiner* (1888-1945)

Schmuel Arthur Zygielbojm* (1895-1943)

 

 

Bureau of Jewish Social Research, Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds

 

 

Byten Ghetto Underground, Belorussia, 200 Jews escaped during action of July 25, 1942

 

 

Cachoud Group (Maurice Cachoud Group), France; the Maurice Cachoud Group consisted of approximately 25 young Jewish men and women who worked in the Jewish underground around Nice, France; this group was comprised of members of the Dubouchage Committee and members of other Jewish underground organizations; the Cachoud Group received funds and support from FSJF and UGIF, and the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, which provided the majority of its funding

Maurice Cachoud-Loebenberg+†*, leader, founder

Jacob Weintraub

Claude Gutman

Raymond Heymann

 

 

Caisse Israelite de Prets, Paris, 1934-1935, created in 1934 to provide loans to German refugees in Paris; funded by American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) and ICA

 

 

Camps Commission (Commission des Centre de Rassemblement), France, established 1941. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee obtained French permission to aid in relief activities in France.  Morris Troper, along with Rabbi Rene Hirschler and Marc Jarblum, established the Commission des Centre de Rassemblement (Camps Commission) in 1941

Chief Rabbi Rene Hirschler*, founder

Morris Troper, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC)

Dr. Joseph Weill (director of OSE)

 

 

Canadian Emigration Project, Iberian Penninsula, see American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

 

 

Canadian Jewish Committee for Refugees, established 1939

Saul Hayes

 

 

Canadian Jewish Congress (CJC), Canada, established 1919; founded Jewish Immigrant Aid Society

Samuel Bronfman, president 1936-1959

Hanane M. Caiserman

Simon Belkin

Peter Bercovitch

Solomon Frank

Egmont L. Frankel

Archibald J. Friedman

 

Center for Aliyah, established January 1939, Paris, France

Shlomo Yaakobi (Yankelewitz)

Hillel Kook (Peter H. Bergson)

Eri Jabotinsky

Yitzhak Rozin (Irgun)

Yosef Katznelson (NZO)

Eliyahu Bidner (Ben-Horin) – Romania, Palestine, USA

 

 

Center for Contemporary Jewish Documentation (Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaire; CDJC)

Isaac Schneerson, founder

 

 

Centos, see Central Agency for the Care of Orphans in Poland

 

 

Central Agency for Care of Orphans, Poland (Centos; Centrala Opieka nad Siepotani), Poland, established 1924

Adolf Abraham Berman (1906-1978), head

Leon Feiner (Bundist; 1888-1945), deputy head

 

 

Central Agudath Israel of Eretz Israel, Jerusalem

 

 

Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith (Centralverein Deutscher Staatsbürger Jüdischen Glaubens; CV), renamed Centralverein de Juden in Deutschland in 1935, renamed again Jüdischer Centralverein in 1936, disbanded in 1938

Friedrich Brodnitz (1899-1995), head

Julius Brodnitz (1866-1936), chairman

Hans Reichman (1860-1964), head of Berlin office

Alfred Hirschber (1901-1971), editor of CV Zeitung

Cora Berliner* (1890-1942), Zentralausschuss, Reichsvertretung, Jüdischer Frauenbund, Reichsvereingung

Eva Reichman (née Jungman; 1897-1999), Emigration Department

 

 

Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF), UK, established May 1933; also called Council for German Jewry

 

 

Central British Fund for Jewish Relief and Rehabilitation, UK, 1943, originally Central Council for Jewish Refugees, established 1939

 

 

Central Bureau for Jewish Economic Relief (Zentralstelle für Jüdische Wirtschaftshilf), Berlin, Germany, established April 1933

 

 

Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews in Palestine of the Jewish Agnecy for Palestine, Palestine

Chaim Weizman, central bureau chairman

Sub-group: Rural and Suburban Settlement Company, Ltd. (RASSCO)

 

 

Central Bureau of Autonomous Orthodox Jewish Religious Congregations in Slovakia

 

 

Central Bureau of the Autonomous Orthodox Jewish Community of Hungary (Magyarországi Autonom Orthodox Izraelita Hitfekezet Köpzponti Irodaja-Maoih)

 

 

Central Commission of Jewish Relief Organizations (CCOJA; Commission Centrale des Organisations Juives d’Assistance), France, established October 30-31, 1940 in Marseilles

Chief Rabbi Isaïe Schwartz, founder

Joseph Schwartz (JDC)

Herbert Katzki (JDC)

Chief Rabbi René Hirschler, president

Donald A. Lowrie (Czech Aid, YMCA, head of the Nîmes Committee; non-Jew)

 

 

Central Committee for the Relief of Refugee Rabbis from Nazi Countries, Palestine

 

 

Central Committee for the Social Welfare of the Jews of Slovakia (Ústredny Vybor pre Soziálnú Starostlivost Zidov na Slovenku)

 

 

Central Committee of German Jews for Relief (Help) and Reconstruction (Zentral Ausschus der Deutschen Juden für Hilfe und Aufbau; ZAHA), Germany, April 1933-1938, became part of Reichsvertretung in 1935, merged with Reichsvereingung in 1938

Rabbi Leo Baeck (1873-1956), chairman

Ludwig Teitz, first executive secretary

George Lubinski-Lotan, cofounder

Salomon Adler-Rudel

Cora Beliner* (1890-1942), Emigration Department

Friedrich Borchard, executive secretary 1935-1936

Friedrich Brodnitz (1899-1995)

Paul Eppstein*

Max Kreuzberger, executive secretary 1934-1935

Werner Senator

 

 

Central Committee of the Union of Jewish Refugees

 

 

Central Conference of American Rabbis, Inc. (CCAR), New York, NY, established 1889, Committee on Refugee Rabbis later called Committee on Refugee Relief was founded in 1939

Rabbi Felix A. Levy, chairman

 

 

Central Consistory of French Jews (CC; Consistoire Central des Israélites de France), Paris/Marseilles, established 1808

Chief Rabbi Isaïe Schwartz

Léon Meiss, vice president

Robert Kief, secretary

Marcel Sachs, president of Paris Consistory

Legal Commission:

René Mayer, president

Lubetsky, lawyer

Seligman, member of State Council

William Oualid, professor

Paul David, president of Bar

Office of Studies:

Georges Halphen

Léon Algazi

Defense Committee, established 1940:

General André Boris, leader

René Mayer

Leon Meiss

Jacques Meyer

Professor David Olmer

 

 

Central Council for Jewish Refugees, UK, established 1939, in 1943 became Central British Fund for Jewish Relief and Rehabilitation

 

 

Central Council of Hungarian Jews (Magyar Zsidók Központi Tanacsa), see Jewish Council, Hungary

 

 

Central Council of the Jewish Congregations of Finland, established 1933

 

 

Central Jewish Committee, Budapest, established January 1939

 

 

Central Jewish Committee, Kaunas (Kovno), Lithuania

 

 

Central Jewish Committee of Mexico (Comité Central Israelita de México; CCIM), established 1939

 

 

Central Jewish Consistory (Consistoir Central Israélite; CCI), Antwerp, Belgium, established 1830, closed when Nazis established Association of the Jews of Belgium (AJB) in 1941

Itzko Kubowitzki (General Zionists)

Rabbi Joseph Weiner (seft September 1940)

Rabbi Solomon Ullman

 

 

Central Jewish Office for the Region of Slovakia (Zidovska Ustredna Uradnovna pre Slovensku Krajinu; ZÚÚ), established Novemer 1938

Dr. Wohlstein-Voldan

 

 

Central Jewish Relief Committee, Tunis, established June 1943

Paul Chez, chairman

Elie Gozlan, JDC representative, Algeria

 

 

Central Office for Jewish Economic Help (Zentralstelle für Jüdische Wirtschaftshilfe)

 

 

Central Office for Jewish Emigration (Zentralstelle für Jüdische Auswanderung)

 

 

Central Office of the Jewish Loan Kassas in Germany (Zentralstelle für Jüdische Darlehskassen)

 

 

Central Organization of Rumanian Jewry, Rumania

 

 

Central Refugees Committee, Warsaw, Poland

 

 

Central Relief Committee (CRC), 1933-1934

 

 

Central Relief Committee for Jewish War-Victimes and Refugees, WJC affiliate, Buenos Aires, Argentina

 

 

Central Relief Committee for Polish Refugees, Romania

 

 

Central Relief for Refugee Rabbis in Tel Aviv, Ezrath Torah

 

 

Central School of Emigration, established January 1936, see Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland

 

 

Central Union of German Citizens of Jewish Faith (Centralverein deutscher Staatsürger Jüdischen Glaubens; CV), Germany

 

 

Central Welfare Agency of German Jews (Jewry; Zentralwohlfahrtstelle de Deutschen Juden), Germany, established 1917, closed 1933; agency of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC)

 

 

Central Welfare Council (RGO; Rada Glowna Opiekvncza), Krakow, Poland, established 1940 (General Government), active to 1945

Adam Roniker, first chairman

Konstanty Tchorznicki, second chairman, appointed October 1943

 

 

Centrala Evreilor Din Romania, see Jewish Center Romania

 

 

Centrala Opieka nad Siepotani (CENTOS), see Central Agency for Care of Orphans, Poland, established 1924; supported in part by JDS

 

 

Centralverein, see Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith, Central Association of the Jews in Germany

 

 

Centre de Recherches de Solutions au Problème Juif

 

 

Centre de Reclassment Professionel, France, 1939-1945

 

 

Centro Hebreu Brasileiro de Socorro dos Victimas de Guerra, Rio de Janiero, Brazil

 

 

Chelmno Death Camp, Poland

Jacob Grojanowski*, escaped from Chelmno death camp, produced Grojanowski Report with Oneg Shabbat historians in Warsaw Ghetto, February 1942

 

 

Chernovtsky Ghetto, Romania, Zionest Youth Rescuers

 

 

Chief Rabbi’s Religious Emergency Council (CRREC), England, established March 1938

Chief Rabbi Joseph Herman Hertz

Rabbi Solomon Schonfeld (1912-1982), founder, leader

Rabbi Joseph Hertz

 

 

Children’s Aid Rescue Society (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants de la Santé des Populations Juives; OSE), Paris, Montpellier, Marseilles, Lyon, Grenoble, Perigueux, Toulouse, Limoges, Nice, Chambrey, France, established in Russia in 1912, headquartered in Paris 1933-1939, moved to Montpellier in the South after German occupation in 1940; see also Christian Friendship (Amitié Chrétienne), France, and Garel Network, France

Head: Joseph Milner (Health Section, UJIF-S, Department 3)

Paris: Professor Bresedka (president, OSE Paris office, 1933), Dr. Eugene Minkowski (director, Paris office), Falk Walk , Hélène Matorine, Simone Kahn, Jeanine Levy, Celine Vallee, Madame Averbuch, Nathan Samuel

Montpellier: Dr. Joseph Weill, Andree Salomon, Vivette Samuel (Garel Network)

Geneva office:  Lazar Gourvic (secretary general of the Union OSE, founded OSE France in 1935), Boris Tschlenoff, Joseph Weill, Judith Hemmendiger-Feist, Olga Guric

Marseilles/South (OSE-SUD):  Julien Samuel (co-director, Marseilles office), Dr. Rene Zimmer (co-director, Marseilles office), Adrien Benveniste, Rene Borel (administration staff), Vivette Samuel, Nicole Salon-Weill, Huguette Wahl

Nice: Nicole Wiell

Lyons/East Central:  Charles Lederman, Elizabeth Hirsch, Madeleine Dreyfus, Fizer, Rene Borel, Victor Svarc (“Souvard”; leader)

Limoges/Central: Joseph Weill, Gaston Levy, Edith Scheftel (“Jacqueline Estager,” “Pauline Gauefroi”; leader)

Valence/Southeast: Robert Ebstein (“Evrard”; leader), Fanny Loinger (“Laugier”; leader)

Toulouse/Southwest: Solange Zitlenok (“Rémy”; leader)

Chambery: Alain Mossé

Izieu: Laila Feldblum

Hérault Prefecture: Sabina Zlatin, Miron Zlatin, Léon Reifman, Margot Cohen

UGIF-S, Department 3:  Joseph Milner (OSE representative to UGIF-S, Third Directorate), Georges Garel

Garel Network:  Georges Garel

Joseph Milner

Moussa Abadie (OSE)

Dr. Jean Cremer

Elizabeth Hirsch

Robert Job

Germaine Masour

Alain Mosse

Charlotte Rosenbaum

Odette Rosenstock

Andrée Salomon

Julien Samuel

Rivesaltes camp: Herta Field, Charles Lederer, Dr. Malkin (medical inspector of schools, physician), Andrée Salomon, Vivette Samuel-Hermann, Simon Weill (Reinette), Dora Wertzburg, Fanny Zimmer

Agde camp: Dr. Malkin (medical inspector)

Nimes camp: Dr. Joseph Weill (Commission on Hygiene and Aid to Children and the Elderly, OSE physician)

Gurs camp: Ruth Lambert

Les Milles: Julien Samuel, Vivette Samuel

Palavas, Les Flots: Sabine Zlatin*

Hotel du Levant: Andrée Salomon, Fanny Loinger

Hotel Bompart: Margot Stein

Le Masgelier Home:  Dr. Moise Blumenstock* (staff physician), Gertrude Blumenstock*

Brout-Vernet (Allier) Home:  Dr. Gluck*, Joseph KoganGertrude Blumenstock-Lévy*

Individuals (alphabetical list):

Moussa Abadie (Garel Network)

Madame Averbuch (Paris)

Adrien Benveniste (Marseilles)

Dr. René Bloch (Block)

Gertrude Blumenstock-Levy

Dr. Moise Blumenstock

Rene Borel (Lyon)

Professor Bresedka (Paris)

Dr. Simon Brutzkus

Eve Cahen

André Chouraqui

Marianne Cohen

Margot Cohen (Hérault Prefecture)

Dr. Jean Cremer

Madeleine Dreyfus (Lyon)

Pierre Dreyfus

Robert Ebstein (“Evrard”; Southeast/Valence)

Laila Feldblum (Izieu)

Fizer (Lyon)

Marcel Geismar

Abbe Alexander Glassberg (Amitié Chrétienne)

Dr. Lazar Gorevich/Gurvic, (Secretary General, Geneva office)

Olga Gurvic (Geneva)

Emilie Guth

Judith Hemmendiger-Feist (Geneva)

Elizabeth Hirsch (Lyon)

Robert Job (Garel Network)

Simone Kahn (Paris)

Joseph Kogan

Ruth Lambert (Gurs camp)

Charles Lederman (Lyon)

Gaston Levy (Limoges)

Jeanine Levy (Paris)

Georges Loinger

Fanny Loinger (“Laugier”; Hotel du Levant; Southeast France/Valence)

Dr. Malkin (Rivesaltes camp; Agde camp)

Germaine Masour (Garel Network)

Hélène Matorine (Paris)

Joseph Milner (Head, OSE; Health Section, UJIF)

Dr. Eugene Minkowski (Paris)

Alain Mosse

Emmanuel Racine

Mila Racine

Jacques Rather

Léon Reifman (Hérault Prefecture)

Charlotte Rosenbaum (Garel Network)

Odette Rosenstock (Garel Network)

Andrée Salomon (Rivesaltes camp; Hotel du Levant; Montpellier)

Jacques Salon

Julien Samuel (Les Milles camp; Marseilles)

Nathan Samuel (Paris)

Vivette Samuel-Hermann (Rivesaltes camp; Les Milles camp; Lyon)

Edith Scheftel (Central France/Limoges)

Joachim Simon (”Schuschu”)

Margot Stein (Hotel Bompart)

Victor Svarc (“Souvard”; East Central France/Lyon)

Dr. Boris Tschlenoff (Geneva)

Celine Vallee (Paris)

Huguette Wahl (Marseilles)

Falk Walk (Paris)

Dr. Joseph Weill (Nîmes camp; Limoges; Geneva)

Nicole Salon-Weill (Marseilles)

Simon Weill (Reinette; Rivesaltes camp)

Dora Wertzburg

Dr. Rene Zimmer (Marseilles)

Solange Zitlenok (“Rémy”; Southwest France/Toulouse)

Sabine Zlatin(Hérault Prefecture)

Miron Zlatin (Hérault Prefecture)

 

 

Children’s Aid Rescue Society (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants de la Santé des Populations Juives; OSE), Geneva, Switzerland, see also Christian Friendship (Amitié Chrétienne), France

Dr. Boris Tschlenoff, director

Dr. Joseph Weill

Judith Hemmendiger-Feist

Olga Gurvic

Lazare Gurvic

Hélène Block

Jacques Block

 

 

Children’s Aid Rescue Society (OSE), USA; American National Committee, OSE

Dr. J. J. Golub (JDC), head 1933-1937

Dr. A. J. Rongy (JDC), head

Albert Einstein, honorary chair

 

 

Children’s Inter-Aid Committee, Great Britain, merged with Movement for the Care of Children from Germany to become Refugee Children’s Movement (RCM) in March 1939

 

 

Chmielnik Ghetto Jewish Council

Shmuel Zalcman+*, chairman (second)

 

 

Chortkov Ghetto Partisans, escaped spring 1943

Reuven Rosenberg, leader

Meir Wasserman

 

 

Christian Friendship (Amitié Chrétienne), France, see Religious Organizations

 

 

Chug Chalutzi (Zionist Circle), Berlin, Germany, established March 1943, worked with Kaufman Group, forty members

Jizchak Schwersenz (b. 1915), founder

Edith “Ewo” Wolf (b. 1904)

Eva-Chava Fleischman

Karla Wegenberg

Heinz Linke

 

 

Citron Group, Bratislava, Slovakia

Yehoshua Citron (Halevi), founder

 

 

Clandestine Service for the Placement of Children of WIZO (Service Clandestine de Placement de Enfants de la WIZO), part of UIF, France

 

 

Clothes Collecting Company (Ruhagyüjtö Munkássizázad), Section T, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

Dr. György Wilhelm, leader

István Békeffi

István Komlós

István Rádi

Adorján Stella

 

 

La Colonie Scolaire (LCS), the educational summer camp umbrella for Comite de la Rue Amelot, France

 

 

Comisia Autonoma de Ajutorare, see Autonomous Aid Committee, Bucharest, Romania

 

 

Comitato Assistenza Ebrei in Italia (COMASEBIT), see Italian Jewish Aid Committee

 

 

Comitato Italia-Palestina (CIP), see Italian Palestine Committee

 

 

Comite Central Israelita (Central Jewish Committee), Uruguay, established 1940 

 

 

Comite Central Israelita de Mexico (Central Jewish Committee), Mexico City, established 1938

   

 

Comité de Action, see Action Committee, France

 

 

Comité de’Aide et d’Assistance aux Victimes de l’Antisémitisme en Allegagne (Committee for Relief and Constructive Aid to the Victims of Antisemitism in Germany), Belgium, established 1933-1938

 

 

Comité d’Assistance aux Refugees (CAR), Paris/Marseilles, see Committee for Assistance of Refugees

 

 

Comité d’Assistance aux Réfugiés Tcheques, see Committee for Aid of Czech Refugees, Marseilles

 

 

Comité d’Assistance aux Refugees Juifs, Antwerp and Brussels, Belgium

Devid Feldman

Professor Allard

Mrs. Allard

Professor Charles (Chaim) Perelman

Mrs. Charles Perelman

 

 

Comité de Bienfaisance Israelite de Paris, see Jewish Welfare Committee of Paris, France, established 1855

 

 

Comite de Communidad Israelita de Lisboa

 

 

Comité de Coordination des Oeuvres de Bienfaisance Isráelites á Paris, see Coordinating Committee for Jewish Charities in Paris, France, established early 1930s

 

 

Comité de Défense des Juifs Persécutes en Allemagne (CDJ), France, see Committee for Persecuted Jews in Germany, established December 1933

 

 

Comité de Défense des Juifs en Belgique (CDJ), see Jewish Defense Committee, Belgium

 

 

Comite de Emergencia de los Judios de Habla Hungara, Buenos Aires, Argentina

 

 

Comite d’Entente USA, proposed 1937

 

 

Comité de la Rue Amelot, see La Amelot, France

 

 

Comité de Nimes, see Nimes Committee (Camps Committee)

 

 

Comité de Soccoro para Gurs, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Bruno Weil

 

 

Comité des Delegations, France

 

 

Comité des Delegations Juives (CDJ; Committee of Jewish Delegations, see World Jewish Congress; WJC), Switzerland, established 1919; CDJ became founders of the WJC in 1936, CDJ then ceased operating

 

 

Comité des Sauvetage des Juifs, Lyons, France

 

 

Comité Général de Défense Juive (CGD), see General Committee for Jewish Defense, France, established 1943

 

 

Comité Israelita pro Refugiados, Caracas, Venezuela, established 1939

Fortunado Benacerraf, president, 1939 – December 1943

Isack Kohn, president, December 1943

Walter Salomon, secretary

 

 

Comite National de Secours aux Refugies Allemands, Paris, France, 1933-1936

 

 

Comité pour le Developpement de la Grand Colonization Juive

 

 

Comité Unifé de Defense Juif (CUD), see The United Committee for Jewish Defense, France

 

 

Comité d’Union et des Defense des Juifs, see United Defense Committee of Jews

 

 

Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen, see Committee for Special Jewish Affairs

 

 

Commisao Portuguesa de Assistancia aos Judeous Refugiados, see Portuguese Commission for the Assistance of Jewish Refugees, Lisbon, Portugal

 

 

Commission Centrale de Organizations Juives d’Assistance (CCOJA), see Central Commission of Jewish Relief Organizations, France

 

 

Commission Intermouvement Auprés des Évacues, see Intermovement Commission for the Evacuees, France

 

 

Committee for Aid of Czech Refugees (Comité d’Assistance aux Réfugiés Tcheques), Marseilles

Donald Lowrie

Helen Lowrie

Consul Vladimir Vochoc

 

 

Committee for Alleviating the Distress of our Comrades in the Diaspora (Histadrut), Tel Aviv, Palestine

Melech Neustadt, chairman

 

 

Committee for an Army of Stateless and Palestinian Jews (CJA), USA, established 1939; part of Irgun Zvi Leumi, see also Bergson Group

Senator Edwin Johnson, Colorado (non-Jew)

Peter Bergson (Hillel Kook), leader

Ben Hecht

 

 

Committee for Assistance of Refugees from Germany (Comité d’Assistance aux Réfugiés de Allemagne; CAR), Paris, Marsailles, 1939-1943(?), originally established as Comité National de Secours in 1933

Albert Levy

Raymond Raul Lambert

Gaston Kahn

 

 

Committee for German Jewish Refugees, Sao Paolo, Brazil

 

 

Committee for the Protection of Jews in Belgium (CDJ; Comité de Défense des Juifs; Committee for the Defense of Jews), Belgium, established September 1942-1944, part of Independence Front (Front d’Indepéndance), saved 4,000 children and 10,000 adults

Joseph (Ghert) Jospa, founder, leader

Yvonne Jospa

Jacob Gutfreund, commander

Maurice Heiber

Eugene Hellendael (AJB)

Benjaman Nykerk (General Zionists)

Charles (Chaim) Perelman (Revisionist party)

Maurice Edouard Rothkehl (General Zionists)

Abusz Werber (Polalei Zion, Belgian National Council)

Professor and Mrs. Allard

David Fetterman

Alexander Livshitz

George Livshitz (Group G)

Rakower, leader

Weichman, leader

 

 

Committee for Jewish Defense (CDJ; Comité de Défense des Juifs), France, established August 1943

Leo Glaser, founder

 

 

Committee for Jewish Welfare (Comité de Bienfaisance Israélite), France

   

 

Committee for Needy Jews in Poland, Zurich

 

 

Commission for Polish Relief

 

 

Committee for Refugee Affairs, Bucharest, Romania

 

 

Committee for Relief and Constructive Aid to the Victims of Antisemitism in Germany (Comité d’Aide et d’Assistance aux victims de l’Antisémitism en Allemagne), Belgium, 1933-1938

 

 

Committee for Special Jewish Affairs (see Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen), Holland, established March 1933

Abraham Asscher, organizer, co-president

David Cohen, organizer, co-president

 

 

Committee for the Aid of Jewish Refugees from Northern Transylvania (Comitetul de asistentá a refugiatilor evrei din Ardealut de Nord)

Ernö (Ernest) Marton

Martin Hirsch

J. Schmetterer

Leon Goldenberg

Paul Benedek

D. Lampel

 

 

Committee for the Aid of European Jewry, Stockholm

 

 

Committee for the Assistance of European Refugees in Shanghai (CFA; formerly the Relief Committee for German Jews), established 1939

Michael Spellman

Ellis Hayim

Horace Kadoorie

 

 

Committee for the Coordination of Jewish Welfare Agencies of Greater Paris (Comité de Coordination des Oeuvres de Bienfaisance Israelites du Grand Paris)

 

 

Committee for the Defense of Jews (Comité de Defense des Juifs; CDJ), France, established 1943

Leo Glaser, founder

 

 

Committee for the Defense of Persecuted Jews in Germany (Comité de Défense des Juifs Persécutés en Allemagne, France, established December 1933

 

 

Committee for the Defense of the Rights of Jews in Central and Eastern Europe and Union for the Protection of the Human Person, Paris, France, established 1933, expanded 1938

Boris Gourevitch, director

 

 

Committee for the Jews of Occupied Europe, see Joint Rescue Committee

 

 

Committee for the Promotion of Jewish Pioneering and Colonization in Madagascar and Kenya (Komitet far di Promotsye oif Yidishe Halutsishe Kolonizastye in Madagaskar un Kenya), Poland, established December 1938

 

 

Committee for the Protection of Jews in Belgium (Comité de Defense des Juifs in Belgique; CDJ, later CNDJ), Brussels, Belgium

 

 

Committee for the Relief of German Emigrants (Hilfskomite fuer Deutsche Emigranten)

 

 

Committee for the Relief of Refugee Rabbis from Russia, Palestine

 

 

Committee for the Settlement of Jews on the Land (COMZET), USSR

 

 

Committee of Aid for Refugees from Germany, see Jewish Aid Committee, Czechoslovakia

 

 

Committee of Bratislava

Mikulas (Miklos) Sternfeld worked with the Committee of Bratislava.

 

 

Committee of Five (Committee for the Jews of Eruope), see Jewish Agency for Palestine

 

 

Committee of Four, see Joint Rescue Committee, Jewish Agency for Palestine

 

 

Committee of Six, see Working Group (Pracovna Skupina)

 

 

Committee on Children, composed of AFSC, Secours, Suisse, OSE, operated in France

 

 

Committee on Lithuania-Polish Yeshivoth, Lithuania

 

 

Committee on Refugee Aid in Central and South America, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), New York, NY, 1939-1944, changed name to Latin American Committee in 1944

Alfred Jaretski, Jr., chairman

Isaac Levy, chairman

Robert Pilpel, secretary

Harry Biele, secretary

 

 

Committee Representing the Jews of France (Comité Representif des Israelites de France), established in Lyon, 1943

 

 

Committee to Aid German Refugees (Comité d’Assistance aux Réfugiés d’Allemagne)

 

 

Communal Organizatoin of the Jews of Hungary (Magyarországi Zsidók Közösségi Szervezete ; Mazsiosz)

 

 

Community for Peace and Construction, Berlin, Germany, active from Fall 1943, see also Large Deposit

Hans Winkler (1906-1987), founder (non-Jew)

Werner Scharff* (1912-1945), leader, founder, founder of Grosser Einsatz (Large Deposit)

Günther Samuel* (1903-1944), leader, founder, founder of Grosser Einsatz (Large Deposit)

Edith Hirschfeld (b. 1903)

Lotto Söhnker

 

 

Conference on Jewish Social Studies, Inc., New York, NY, established 1933, incorporated as Conference on Jewish Relations in 1936, publication: Jewish Social Studies

Salo W. Baron

Morris R. Cohen

Koppel S. Pinson

Oscar I. Janowsky

Melvin M. Fagen

 

 

Conseil Représentatif des Israélites de France (CRIF), see Representative Council of the Jews of France, France, established 1944

 

 

Conseil Représentatif des Juifs de France (CRJF), see Representative Council of the Jews of France, presently CRIF, Conseil Représentatif des Institutions Juives de France (Representative Council of Jewish Institutions of France), France

 

 

Consistoire Central Israelite (CCI; Central Jewish Consistory), Antwerp, Belgium, established 1830

 

 

Consistoire Central des Israelites de France, see Central Consistory of Jews of France

 

 

Coordinating Committee (Komitet Koordinacny; KK), Warsaw, Poland

 

 

Coordinating Committee for German Jewish Refugees, established 1935, Brazil

 

 

Coordinating Committee for Jewish Charities (Comité de Coordination des Oeuvres Israelites Bienfaisance), France

 

 

Coordinating Committee for Jewish Charities of Greater Paris (Comité de Coordination des Oeuvres de Bienfaisance Israelites à Paris), established early 1930s, to help organize and distribute welfare and aid for Jews in France from a number of charities and welfare agencies.  The UGIF was founded after the Committee.

Welfare Committee (Comité de Bienfaisance)

School Colony (Colonie Scolaire)

Children’s Relief Organization (OSE)

Shelters for the Homeless (Asiles)

Marcel Sachs, spokesman

 

 

Coordinating Committee for Jewish Communities, Brussels, Belgium, formerly Jewish Consistory, Belgium, established spring 1941 as lay and religious organizing and representative group

   

 

Coordinating Foundation, England, established 1939

 

 

Coordination Committee for Assistance in the Camps, see Nîmes Committee

 

 

Coordination Committee of Jewish Charities

 

 

Council for Aid to Jews, Poland, see Zegota

 

 

Council for German Jewry (CFGJ), Great Britain, established January 1936, after outbreak of war, changed name to Central Council for Jewish Reugees 

British members:

Sir Herbert Samuel

Lord Bearsted

Simon Marks

Dr. Chaim Weitzman

Sir Osmond d’Avigdor Goldsmid

US members:

Felix M. Warburg (JDC)

Paul Baerwald (JDC)

Charles J. Liebman

Rabbi Stephan S. Wise (WJC)

Morris Rothenberg

 

 

Council for the Protection of Rights and Interests of Jews from Germany, London, England, established 1945

 

 

Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds, Inc. (CJFWF), New York, NY, established 1932

S. Hollander, president

 

 

Council of Jewish Women, Brooklyn and New York City, USA

 

 

Council of the Ashkenazi Jewish Community, Jerusalem (Wand Hair), 1939-1944

 

 

Council of the Jewish Community (Conseil de la Communauté Israelite; CCI), Tunis, established 1881, reorganized 1937

 

 

Cultural Association of Jewish Women (WIZO affiliate; Associatia Cultural a Femeilor Evree), Romania, established 1919

 

 

Cultural Organization of German Jews (Kulturbund Deutscher Juden), Germany, see Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith, Central Association of the Jews of Germany (Centralverein Deutscher Staatsburger Jüdischen Glaubens; CV)

 

 

Czech Aid, Centre d’Aide, Czechoslovakian Relief Center, Marseilles, France, 1940-1941 (affiliated with YMCA).  Established refugee centers at Château de la Blancherie, Lapeyre, and La Blancherie, near Marseilles, for Czech soldiers, refugees and children.  Founded children’s center called Christian Home for Children, near Nice.

Donald Lowrie (non-Jew; US citizen; alias “DuPont”), head YMCA, head Nîmes Committee

Vladimir Vochoc (non-Jew; alias “Thurmond”), Czech diplomat, arrested and escaped

 

 

Czechoslovak Jewish Representative Committee, New York, affiliated with the World Jewish Congress 

 

 

Czechoslovakian Relief Center, see Czech Aid, Marseilles

 

 

Czenstochow (Czestowowa) Ghetto Fighters, Poland, uprising June 25, 1943

Bolek Gevirtzman, Hashomer Hatzair, partisan, Konetzpol

Rebecca Granz* (1915-1943), CDR Underground Resistance

Mordecai (Moitek) Silberger* (d. 1943), Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) commander

Henyek Wianek

J. Yuristh, Poale Zion, co-founder Underground Resistance

Mendel Fiszlewicz, leader, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

 

 

Danish-Swedish Refugee Service

Solomon Adler-Rudel

 

 

David and Adler Engineers School, Stadlau bei Wein, later Montevideo

 

 

Death Camp Undergrounds and Revolts, see:

Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp

Belzec death camp

Chelmno death camp

Sobibor death camp

Treblinka death camp

 

 

Death to Fascism Jewish Partisan Battalion, Vilna, Lithuania

Yankel Prenner, commander

 

 

Defense Committee – Jewish Consistory, Paris, Vichy, established 1940

General André Boris, leader

René Mayer

Léon Meiss

Jacques Meyer

Professor David Olmer

 

 

DELASEM (Aid Commission for Jewish Refugees; Delegazione Assistenza Emigranti), Southern France, Rome, Italy, and Yugoslavia, established December 1933 under Unione delle Communitá Israelitche (underground after 1939), operated until September 8, 1943

Father Marie-Benoit (b. 1895), leader (Righteous among the Nations; non-Jew)

Lelio Vittorio Valobra, leader (president), Rome, Italy

Lelio Vittorio Valobra organized and administered the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem).  Valobra worked with Angelo Donati and Father Marie-Bénoit.

Dante Almansi, Italy, founder

Raffaele Cantoni

Settimio Sorani, secretary and member of the Executive Committee, Rome, Italy

Settimio Sorani was a Jewish member of the Executive committee of the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) and worked with Father Marie-Bénoit in protecting Jews in Rome, Italy.

Cardinal Pietro Boetto (non-Jew)

Eugenio Bolaffio, Gorizia, Italy, Ljublijana, Slovenia

Angelo Donati (banker), DELASEM, France, Italy (staff HIJEFS)

Mario Finzi

Umberto Jacchia, Genoa, Italy

Aaron Kasztersztein, Member of the Executive Committee, DELASEM, Rome, Italy

Aaron Kasztersztein was a Jewish member of the Executive committee of the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) and worked with Father Marie-Bénoit in protecting Jews in Rome, Italy.

Fernando Le Boucher (non-Jew)

Joseph Levi, Member of the Executive Committee, Delasem, Rome, Italy

Joseph Levi was a Jewish member of the Executive committee of the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) and worked with Father Marie-Bénoit in protecting Jews in Rome, Italy.

Enrico Luzzato, Italy

Armand Moreno, Genoa, Italy

Rabbi Goffredo Pacifici*

Rabbi Riccardo Pacifici, Genoa, Italy

Father Francesco Repetto, Italy (non-Jew)

Stefan Schwamm, Member of the Executive Committee, DELASEM, Rome, Italy

Stefan Schwamm was a Jewish member of the Executive committee of the Delegazione Assistenze Emigranti Ebrei (Jewish Emigrant Association; Delasem) and worked with Father Marie-Bénoit in protecting Jews in Rome, Italy.  On several occasions, Schwamm posed as Monsieur Bernard Lioré, a French delegate of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to help Jews be released from imprisonment.

Massimo Teglio, (Genoa) Italy

 

 

Delaware Valley College of Science and Agriculture, Doylestown, PA, established 1896 as The National Farm School, helped train Jewish refugees in agriculture

 

 

Delegación de Asociaciones Israelitas Argentinas (DAIA; Delegation of Argentine Jewish Organizations), established 1935

 

 

Democratic Refugee-Aid Committee (Demokratische Fluechtlingsfuersorge; DF), Czechoslovakia, established 1933; by 1938, offices in Paris, London, Oslo

 

 

Democratic Refugee Welfare Committee (Demokratische Flüchtlingsfürsorge; DF), Czechoslovakia, established in 1933

 

 

Derechin (Dereczyn) Ghetto Fighting Partisans, see also Dr. Yeheskel Atlas Fighting Unit, 3,000 Jews escaped to the forest on July 24, 1942

Eliyahu Lipszowicz (Lipshovicz), platton leader, Atlas Brigade

Dr. Yeheskel Atlas, leader, founder, “Atlas Brigade”

Chaim Yehoshua Lipszowicz, Atlas Brigade

Gershon Lipszowicz, Atlas Brigade

Taiba (Taibe) Lipszowicz, Atlas Brigade

Benjamin Dombrowski

David Dombrowski

Moshe Chaim Ogolnik

Miszka Ogolnik

Sholom Ogolnik

Bulat

 

 

Derzhinsky Partisan Unit, Belorussia

Josef Rachmilevicz, platoon commander

Rachmilevicz’ four sons

 

 

“Despite Everything” (see Af-Al-Pi, Perl Transporte), established 1937

 

 

Diatlovo (Zhetel; Zdzieciól) Ghetto Underground, Lipiczany Forest Partisans, see also “Atlas” Partisan Brigade, 600 Jews escaped during second action of August 6-8, 1942, see also Hirsh Kaplinsky Unit, “Pobieda” Unit, Lipiczansk Forest, “Borda” Unit, Lipiczansk Forest, Bielski Partisans, Kovalov Parachutist Unit

Alter Dvoretski* (1906-1942), vice chairman and chairman, Jewish Council Zdzieciól, organized and commanded Armed Underground (Poalei Zion, Freiheit Movement)

Hirsch (Hirsz) Kaplinski* (d. 1942), Battalion Partisan Commander

Rashe Baskin, Bulak Division

Shalom (Radieki) Bass*, Kaplinski Unit

Moshe Kahanowitz, Poale Zion

Szolem Fialin+ (Sholom Fyolun)

Moshe Pozulski* (Israel)

Moshe Pozdonsky

Chaim Shuster

Eliyahu Kowenski

Shalom Gerling

Joseph Bitenski

Shalom Bussel*

Shalom Krashinsky*

Yechiel Joselvicz

Aharon Hajdukowsky

Shlomo Shifmanovicz

Nachmanovicz*, partisan emissary

Kantorowicz, partisan emissary

Frenkel*, partisan emissary

 

 

Directorio de la Colectividad Israelita, Peru

 

 

District Offices of RGO, called Polish Welfare Committees (Polskie Komitety Opiekuncze)

 

 

Dokszyce Ghetto Underground, ghetto was destroyed August 16, 1942

Aharon Kagan*

Chaim Lifszyc*

Josef Shapira

 

 

Dolhinov Ghetto Underground, 26 Dolhinov partisans 

Ya’akov Sigalczyk, partisan emissary

   

 

Dominican Republic Settlement Association, Inc. (DORSA), New York, NY, USA, established September 1939, see JDC

James N. Rosenberg (Agro-Joint), founder, president

Mrs. Rebecca Hourwich Reyher

Arthur M. Lamport, founder

 

 

Dorohoi Jewish Aid Committee, Dorohoi, Romania

 

 

Arnold Douwes Rescue Network, Drenthe, Nieuwlande, Netherlands

Arnold Douwes+* (b. 1906), leader, worked under Johannes Post

Max Nico Léons (Jewish), assistant to Arnold Douwes

 

 

Dror (H., Freedom) Party, Poland (Zionist Socialist)

Zivia Lubetkin (1914-1976), commander Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Yitzak “Antek” Zuckerman (Yitzhak Cukierman; 1915-1981), leader Dror, commander Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

 

 

Druja Ghetto Underground, 200 Jews escaped during action of June 16, 1942, and 200 hid

 

 

Dubouchage Committee (Refugee Aid Committee), Nice, Southern France

Yaakov (Jacob) Doubinski, founder, president

Angelo Donati, founder

Ignace Fink, secretary general

Joseph Fischer (JDC representative)

Guido Lospinoso, Italian Race Police Officer (non-Jew)

Claud Kelman

Dr. Modiano

Michel Topiol (CFSJF)

 

 

Dutch Refugee Committee (Vluchteling Comite), established 1933. Later became Committee for Special Jewish Interests (Comite Voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen)

 

 

Dutch Underground

Kurt Reilinger (Paris, Holland)

 

 

Dvorec (Dworec) Work Camp, 500 Jews escaped on December 28, 1942

Israel Kessler, leader

Benjamin Rudicky

Isser Beckman

Moshe Funt

 

 

East European Jewish Refugees (EASTJEWCOM), Shanghai, China, established May 1941 (also known as Committee for East European Jews)

Alfred Oppenheim, Chair

Joseph Bitker, Vice Chair

 

 

EASTJEWCOM, see East European Jewish Refugees, Shanghai, China

 

 

Eclaireurs Israélites de France (EIF), see French Jewish Scouts

 

 

Éducation Physique, see Physical Education (Organization), France

 

 

Eishishok (Ejszyszki) Ghetto Underground action September 24, 1941, 500 Jews escaped, most were killed

Rabbi Rosovsk

 

 

Emergency Committee in Aid of Political Refugees, USA

 

 

Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, New York, NY, USA, established 1933, changed name to Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, Inc., in 1938; closed in 1945 (affiliated with NCC)

Felix M. Warburg, founder

Alfred E. Cohn, founder

 

 

Emergency Committee in Aid to Displaced Foreign Physicians, USA, established in 1933, changed name to Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Medical Scientists in 1939 (affiliated with NCC)

Alfred E. Cohn, founder, member Executive Committee

 

 

Emergency Committee for European Jewish Affairs

 

 

Emergency Committee for War-Torn Yeshivot (Vaad Hahatzala), USA, established December 1939, see Rescue Committee of the Orthodox Rabbis in the United States

 

 

Emergency Committee for Zionist Affairs, New York, NY, USA, established August 1939; members: 21; affiliates: 4

Officers Presidium:

Steven S. Wise (WJC)

Louis Lipsky

Robert Szold

Solomon Goldman

 

 

Emergency Committee on Jewish Refugees, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1935-1938 

 

 

Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe (ECJSPE), see also Bergeson Group, USA, established June 1943; Irgun Zvai Leumi, founding organization; originally founded as Committee of Stateless and Palestinian Jews

Hillel Kook, chairman (Peter H. Bergson)

 

 

Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC; formerly International Rescue Committee), USA, under the patronage of Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt

Founders:

Dr. Frank Kingdon (USA), president Newark University, Methodist minister

Elmer Davis (USA), radio commentator

Dr. William Allen Neilson, president of Smith College

Mrs. Emmons Blaine, philanthropist

Dr. Robert M. Hutchins (USA), president of the University of Chicago

Dr. George Shuster (USA), president of Hunter College

Dorothy Thompson (USA), journalist, rescue advocate 

Varian Fry+, head ERC Marseilles, France, office

Harold Oram, Spanish Aid Committee

Ingrid Warburg

Anna Caples

Paul Hagen

Alfred Barr, Museum of Modern Art, New York

Margaret Scolari Barr

Thomas Mann, eminent German writer

Joseph Buttinger

Mildred Adams, secretary

Dr. Charles Seymour, president of Yale

Dr. Alvin Johnson, head of the New School for Social Research, New York City

Raymond Gram Swing (USA)

The American Relief Center (Centre Américain de Secours; Marseilles staff and volunteers)

Varian Fry, head

Daniel “Danny” Bénédite+, Assistant Director, ERC, 1940-194?

Theodora Bénédite

Richard “Dick” Ball

Ludwig Copperman (Louis Coppee; Jewish)

Miriam Davenport+ (USA)

Charles “Charlie” Fawcett+

Lotte Feibel

Lena Fischmann (Jewish)

Hans Fittko (“Johaness F.”), Austria

Lisa Fittko, Austria (Jewish)

Bill Freier+ (Bill Spira)

Jean Gemahling+

Mary Jayne Gold+, (USA)

Mrs. Anna Gruss

Fritz Bedrich Heine (b. 1904)

Lucie Heymann

Franz “Franzi” von Hildebrand

Otto Albert “Beamish” Hirschmann (Albert Hermant; Jewish)

Eric Lewinsky

Heinrich Mueller

Heinz Ernst “Oppy” Oppenheimer

Mrs. Margaret Palmer

Justus “Gussie” Rosenberg (Jewish)

Hans Sahl

Paul Schmierer

Vala Schmierer

Dr. Marcel “Monsieur Maurice” Verzeanu

Jacques Weisslitz+*

Charles Wolff+*, journalist

Helped by:

Richard Allen, American Red Cross, Marseilles

Mayor Cruzet, Mayor of Cerbère

Vincent Azéma, Mayor of Banyuls, France, see Banyuls-sur-Mer

Vice Consul Hiram Bingham IV (USA), see US Consulate, Marseilles, France

Frank Bohn, AFofL (USA)

Consul General Gilberto Bosques (Mexico), Marseilles, see Mexican Consulate, Marseilles, France

Howard Brooks, Unitarian Service Committee, see Unitarian Service Committee (USC)

“Carlos” (“Garcia”)

Dr. Burns Chalmers, American friends Service Committee, see American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)

Consul de Sousa Dantas (Brazil), Paris

Gaston Defferre, lawyer, Marseilles

Police Captain DuBois (France), Marseilles

Pinto Ferreira, Portugal

Consul Figuière (Panama), Marseilles

Bedrich Heine, assistant to Frank Bohn, AFofL

Dr. Charles Joy

Howard E. Kershner, American Frinds Service Committee (AFSC), Marseilles

Consul Li (China), Marseilles

Dr. Donald Lowrie, Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), Czech Aid, Marseilles

Emilio Lussu (alias “Monsieur Dupont”), assistant to Dr. Marcel Verzeanu

Colonel Randolfo Pacciardi

Reiner

Vice Consul Myles Standish (USA), Marseilles

Consul Vladimir Vochoc+ (Czechoslovakia), Marseilles

Consul (honorary) for Lithuania+ at Aix-en-Provence

Consul of Poland, Marseilles

Consul of Siam+, Marseilles

 

 

EMIGDIRECT, established 1921, see HICEM

 

 

Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF), established 1934, later became Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), Australia, affiliated with Refugee Economic Corporation (REC) and American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

Felix Warburg, first president

 

 

English Zionist Federation (EZF), established 1897 (component of World Zionist Organization)

Simon Marks (1888-1964), vice president, member Jewish Agency Executive, London, England

 

 

Enschede Jewish Council, Overijssel, the Netherlands

Helped by:

Leendert Overduin+, Protestant Calvinist minister (non-Jew), rescue network

Sig Menco (Jewish)

Gerard Sanders

Isidoor van Dam

Friso van Horn

Maartje Overduin (sister of Leendert Overduin)

Corry Overduin (sister of Leendert Overduin)

Pastor Moulijn, Blija

Voogt+

Gerhard Voogt

Sara Voogt

Mijnie Voogt

 

 

Entr’aide Français Israélite (EFI)

Dr. Simeon Hammel

André Solomon

Rabbi Leo Cohen

Marc Haguenau

Simon Levitte

 

 

Entr’aide Temporaire, see Temporary Mutual Assistance (Organization), France

 

 

Europa Plan, see Working Group, Slovakia

 

 

European Jewish Children’s Aid (formerly German Jewish Children’s Aid; GJCA), New York, NY, established 1933, affiliated with National Refugee Service (NRC), USA, disbanded in 1952; see also National Refugee Service, United States Committee for the Care of European Children, Inc.

Solomon Lowenstein, chairman

Blanche B. Goldman, chairman 1938

Alan M. Stroock, 1941

Herman W. Block, chairman 1943-1945

Felix Warburg, treasurer (JDC)

J. C. Hyman, secretary (JDC)

Cecilia Razovsky, executive director

Lotte Marcus, director of placements

 

Executive Council of Austrialian Jewry, established 1944, see also Board of Deputies of Australian Jewry

 

 

EZRA (Refugee Aid Committee), Barcelona and Madrid, Spain; Belgium; Kaunas (Kovno), Lithuania

Albert Nussbaum, secretary

 

 

EZRAS Torah Fund (ETF), organized 1915 by Union of Orthodox Rabbis of U.S. and Canada

 

 

Ezrat, Vilnius, Kaunas, Lithuania, established December 1939

Dr. Jacob Robinson

 

 

Far East Jewish National Council, established 1937 by Jewish Communities of the Far East

Dr. Kaufman, chairman

 

 

Far Eastern Jewish Central Information Bureau for Immigrants (DALJEVCIB), Harbin and Shanghai, China, established 1918; founded by HIAS

Meyer Birman

Isaiah Rozowsky

 

 

Fareinikte Partizaner Organizatsie (FPO), see United Partisan Organization, Vilius, Lithuania

 

 

Faraynigter Yidisher Komitet far de Milchune Antkegen di Farfolgung fun Yidn in Deutshland (United Jewish Committee for the War Against Persecution of Jews in Germany), Warsaw, Poland, established 1934

 

 

Federated Council of Palestine Institutions, New York, NY, USA, established 1940

Aaron Teitelbaum, chairman

Abraham Horowitz, honorable secretary

 

 

Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews (FCJ), London

 

 

Federation of French Jewish Organizations (FSJF; Fédération des Sociétés Juives de France; Comite de Coordination et de Federation), Paris/Lyon, 1939-1942

Marc Jarblum, president

Reuben (Zvi) Grinberg, executive committee

Israël Jefroykin, honorary president

Joseph Fischer, executive committee (JNF French representative)

Léo Glaeser, executive committee

Henri Hertz, executive committee

Faiwel Schrager, executive committee

Jules Jefroykin

Zwi Lewin

David Rapoport*

 

 

Federation of Hungarian Jews in America, New York, NY, USA, established 1914; members: 36,000; societies: 96

Samuel Buchler, president

Pincus Friedman, secretary

 

 

Federation of Jewish Associations of Algeria (FSJA)

 

 

Federation of Jewish Credit Cooperatives, Riga, Latvia

 

 

Federation of Jewish Relief Organizations, England, 1943-1944

 

 

Federation of Jewish Religious Congregations in Slovakia, “JESCHURUN”

 

 

Federation of Jewish Women of France for Palestine (UJF; Union des Femmes Juives de France pour la Palestine), established 1924, France (under WIZO).

 

 

Federation of Lithuanian Jews, New York, NY, USA, established July 11, 1937

Sidney Hillman, president

Elias Fife, chairman

M. Keilson, treasurer

F. Epstein, secretary

 

 

Federation of Palestine Jews, New York, NY, USA, established July 1929; members: 1,500; branches: 19

J. M. Charlop, honorary president

Hirsch Manishewitz, honorary president

Aaron Teitelbaum, honorary president

Isadore Benjamin, president

Joseph Gabriel, vice president

Isaac Berman, vice president

Moses Elioch, treasurer

M. J. Schulsinger, secretary

Isaac Sharlin, executive secretary

J. M. Margolis, chairman, executive committee

J. L. Moinester, chairman, administrative committee

Vaad Haroshi, chairman

Hersch Kohn, chairman

 

 

Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation), USA, established 1908, see American Federation of Polish Jews, established 1940

 

 

Federation of Swiss Jewish Communities, Switzerland

 

 

Federation of Women Zionists of Great Britain and Ireland, British Affiliate of WIZO

 

 

Federation of Zionist Parties, Belgium

 

 

Fighters for Freedom of Israel (Lohamei Hirut Israel; LEHI), see Stern Group

 

 

Floersheimische Stiftung, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1940-1942

 

 

Flüchtlingshilfe (Refugee Help), part of WIZO, Czechoslovakia, established 1933

 

 

Forces Armées Juives, see Jewish Army, France

 

 

Fortresse Juive (Strong Hand Organization), see Jewish Fortress, France

 

 

Foyer des Israélites Refugies (Home for Jewish Refugees), France

 

 

Freeland League for Jewish Territorial Colonization (Settlement), London, England, New York, NY, USA, established 1941; members: 1,700; branches: 8; publication: Oifen Shvel [On the Threshold], 1943-1956

Dr. Isaac Nathan Steinberg (1888-1957), secretary, founder

Jacob Levin, president

M. Mendelsberg

T. B. Herwald, founder

 

 

French Israelite Mutual Aid Society (see Entr’aide Française Israélite ; EFI)

 

 

French Jewish Scouts (EIF; Eclaireurs Israélites de France), La Sixième, established 1923; see also Notre-Dame-de-Sion, Grenoble

Robert Gamzon, founder, UGIF (“Lieutenant Lagnès”)

Dr. Frederic Hammel

Albert Akerberg, UGIF

Adrien Benveniste

Rabbi Leo Cohen

Marianne Cohen*

Roger Fictenberg

Claude Gutman*

Marc Haguenau+*, leader, “The Sixth”

Simon (Shimon) Hammel

André Kessler

Théo Klein, leader (CRIF)

Simon Levitte

Denise Lévy

Fernand Musnik*, UGIF-N

Mila Racine

Jacques Roitman

Andrée Salomon

Henri Wahl

Ninon Weyl-Hait

Yitzchak Zakkai

The Sixth (La Sixième), Robert Gamzon, founder, UGIF

Compagnie, Marc Haguenau

Service d’Evacuation et de Regroupement d’Enfants

Service d’Evacuation et de Rassemblement d’Enfants

André Kessler

Simeon Hammel

Rabbi Leo Cohen

Jacques Roitman

 

 

Friends of the Alliance Universelle, New York, USA

 

 

Front of the Wilderness Generation (Hazit Dor Bnei Midbar; HDBM), Polish Front Mlodzyowski (FMZ; Jewish Youth Front), Lodz Ghetto, Polnad, established August 14, 1940

Aharon Jacobson, founder

Raphael Zelwer+, leader

Dov Lemberg

 

 

Fund for Jewish Refugee Writers, New York, USA

 

 

Future (Zkunft), Poland.  Polish youth movement.  Operated underground during the war.

 

 

Garel Network (Réseau Garel), HQ Lyons, France; offices in Limoges, Paris, see also Children’s Aid Rescue Society, OSE, France

Georges Garel, founder, leader

Abbé Alexander Glasberg

Limoges section – Julien Samuel

Lyon office – Madeleine Dreyfus*, assistant chief; Martha Sternheim, Eva Deleage

Paris section – Dr. Eugene Minkowski

Central group

Joseph “Joni” Millner

Andrée Salomon

Dr. Jean Cremer

René Borel

Alain Mosse

Elizabeth Hirsch (Boegie)

Charlotte Rosenbaum

Robert Job

Germaine Masour

Children’s Section (No. 5), Paris

Lucienne Clement

“Circuit B” – Andrée Salomon, leader

Other members

Abbé (Alexander) Glasberg (convert)

Archbishop Jules-Gérard Saliège of Toulouse (non-Jew)

Pierre-Marie Theas, bishop of Montauban (non-Jew)

 

 

General Aid Committee for Jewish Refugees from Germany in Poland

 

 

General Committee for Jewish Defence (Comité Général de Défense Juive)

 

 

General Jewish Committee of Northern Transylvania (Curatoriu general evreesc al Ardealului de Nord)

 

 

General Jewish Council, New York, New York, USA, established 1938

Isaiah Minkoff, executive secretary

Carl J. Austrian, treasurer

Edgar J. Kaufman, chairman

Henry Monsky, vice chairman

Adolph Held, vice chairman

 

 

General Jewish Fighting Organization (Yidishe Algemeyne Kamfs Organizatsye; FPO), Kovno Ghetto, Lithuania, 600 partisans, Rudaniki Forest, three battalions (200 partisans, 50 killed in action)

Kovno Brigade

Death to Occupiers

Kadima (Forward)

Uladas Baronas

 

 

General Jewish Workers’ Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia (Algemeiner Yidisher Arbeiterbund in Lita, Poilen un Rusland)

 

 

General Union/Council of French Jews, see Union Général des Israélites de France (UGIF)

 

 

General Relief Committee for Jewish Refugees from Germany in Poland

Chief Rabbi Professor Schorr, chairman

 

 

German Jewish Aid Committee, London, England, established 1933, see Jewish Refugees Committee

 

 

German Jewish Children’s Aid, Inc. (GJCA), a project of the National Refugee Service, Inc., New York, USA, established 1934, 1934-1945, see European-Jewish Children’s Aid, 1942, organized and funded in part by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

Cooperating agencies:

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC)

Child Placement Executives Group of the National Conference of Jewish Social Wrok

Jewish Labor Committee

Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)

B’nai B’rith

National Council of Jewish Women

Solomon Lowenstein, chairman 1933-1938

Blanch B. Goldman, 1938-1941

Allan M. Strooch, 1941, chairman

Herman W. Block, 1943, vice chairman

Felix Warburg, treasurer (JDC)

J. C. Hyman, secretary (JDC)

Cecilia Razovsky, executive director

Max Kohler

Ethel H. Wise, secretary

 

 

German-Jewish Emmigration Council (Anglo HICEM), London, England, 1933-1934, transferred activities to Jewish Refugee Committee, London, in November 1934

Sir Osmond d’Avigdor Goldsmid

Mr. Otto M. Schiff

 

 

German Jewish Relief Fund, New South Wales, Australia, established 1936

   

 

German Jews in Palestine (Hitachduth Olej Germania; after 1938, Hitachduth Olej Germania vi Olej Austria)

 

 

German Palestine Pioneer Organization, Hechalutz, Germany

 

 

German Zionist Federation (Zionistische Vereinigung für Deutschland), 1933-1939

 

  

Gesellschaft zur Foerderung Wirtschafter Interessen von in Deutschland Wohnhaften order Wohnhaft Gewesenen Juden (Society for the Promotion of Economic Interests of the Jewish Residents or Former Residents in Germany), Berlin, 1936-1937

 

 

Ghetto Undergrounds, see:

Baranowicz (Baranovichi) Ghetto Underground

Bendzin (Bedzin) Ghetto Underground

Bereza-Kartuska (Kartusskaya Berezak) Ghetto Underground, Polesie District, Belorussia

Bondi Ghetto Underground

Brzesc Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Budapest Ghetto Underground, Hungary (see Swedish Legation, Jewish Council, Budapest Underground, Swiss Legation, Relife and Rescue Committee of Budapest)

Chernovtsky (Ger: Zcernowitz rum. Cernauti) Ghetto Underground, Romania

Chmielnik Ghetto Underground

Chortov Ghetto Underground

Cznestochow Ghetto Underground, Poland

Derechin Ghetto Underground (see also Dr. Yeheskel Atlas Fighting Brigade)

Diatlovo (Zhetl) Zdzieciól Ghetto Underground (Lipiczany Forest)

Dokszye Ghetto Underground

Glubok Ghetto

Grodno Ghetto Underground

Eishishok (Ejszyszki) Ghetto Underground

Hancewicz Ghetto Underground

Hancewicz Work Camp Escape Committee (five cells)

Horodok Ghetto Underground, Lithuania

Iwaniska Ghetto Underground, Radom District, Poland

Iwje Ghetto Underground, Lida, Poland

Janow Ghetto Underground

Kamen-Koshirk Ghetto Underground

Kazian Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Kleck Ghetto Underground /Glebokie Ghetto Underground

Kletsk Ghetto Underground

Kobryn Ghetto Underground

Kobylnik Ghetto Underground

Koldyczeva Ghetto Underground

Korelicz Ghetto Underground

Kosov-Polesky Ghetto Underground

Kovno (Kaunas) Ghetto Underground, Lithuania

Koziany Ghetto Underground

Krakow Ghetto Underground, Poland

Krasna Ghetto Underground

Kurzeniec Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Lachowicz Ghetto Underground

Lachwa Ghetto Underground (Pinsk area), Belorussia

Lida Ghetto Underground (Novogrudok District), Belorussia

Lubieszow Ghetto Underground

Lvov Ghetto Underground

Marcinkance Ghetto Underground

Miadziol Ghetto Underground

Michaliczky Ghetto Underground

Minsk Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Mir Ghetto Underground, Poland

Molczadz Ghetto Underground, Poland

Neswiesz (Newiesz) Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Novogrudok Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Olkeniky Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Oradea (Oradea Mare) Ghetto Underground, Northern Transylvania

Oszmiana Ghetto Underground

Pajeczno Ghetto – Council, Radom District, Poland

Pilica Ghetto – Council, Radom District, Poland

Pinsk Ghetto Underground

Piotrków Trybunalski Ghetto Underground, Poland

Postavy Ghetto Underground

Pruzhana (Pruzhany) Ghetto Underground

Radom Ghetto Underground, Poland

Radomsko Ghetto Underground

Radun Ghetto Underground

Riga Ghetto Underground, Latvia

Rubzhewicze Ghetto Underground, Belorussia (Mikulicz Forest)

Rzeszów (Risha) Ghetto Underground, Poland

Sasów Ghetto Underground, Galicia, Poland

Sernik Ghetto Underground

Slonim Ghetto Underground, Grodno Oblast, Belorussia

Sosnowitz (Sosnowiec) Ghetto Underground, Poland

Stolin Ghetto Underground

Stolpce Ghetto Underground

Swienciany Ghetto Underground

Swierzhen Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Szarkowszczyzna Ghetto Underground

Tarnow Ghetto Underground, Poland

Terezin (Teresienstadt) Ghetto Underground, Czechoslovakia)

Tuchizn (Pol. Tyczyn) Ghetto Underground

Vidz Ghetto Underground

Vilejka Ghetto Underground

Vilna (Vilnius) Ghetto Underground, Lithuania, see United Partisan Organization (FPO)

Volozhin Ghetto Underground

Warsaw Ghetto Underground, see Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB), Warsaw Jewish Fighting Partisans, Jewish Military Union (ZZW), Warsaw Ghetto Fighting Organization

Wasyliszky Ghetto Underground

Wiszniewo Ghetto Underground

Zaglembia Ghetto Underground

Zdzieciol Ghetto Underground, Nowogrodek District

Zhetl, see Diatlovo Ghetto Underground

Zholudok Ghetto Underground

Zólkiewka Ghetto Underground

 

 

Glebokie Ghetto Underground, escape was made during August 20, 1943, action

Baruch Zimmer, partisan emissary, rescued 20 men who were taken to partisan units

 

 

Glubok Ghetto Jewish Council, Belorussia

 

 

Glubok Ghetto Underground, Belorussia, 300 Jews escaped, 150 in organized groups, 100 reached partisan groups, 200 escaped during August 1943 action

Baruch Cimmer*, partisan emissary, “Spartak” Brigade

Avner Feigelman, leader, partisan

Yitzhak Blatt, commander, partisan, commander Czapajew Regiment, Markov’s Brigade

Vuja*, courier

Zalman Cimmer*

 

 

Lou Gompers Relief Network, Town of Doorn & Zeist, Netherlands.  Collected and distributed relief supplies to Jews in the area.

Lou Gompers, member, Dutch Red Cross

 

 

Gouda Training Farm

 

 

“The Grand Rabbinate,” code name for Jewish Community in Istanbul, Turkey, it was recognized by the Turkish government

Henri Soriano, president

Chaim Barlas, Jewish Agency for Palestine representative

Rubin Resnik, JDC representative

 

 

Greater New York Committee for Aid of German Refugees, USA, established October 1934

David Sulzberger, chairman

Eustace Seligman

 

 

Greater New York Coordinating Committee, New York, USA, established 1934; affiliated with Jewish Social Service Association, Jewish Family Welfare Society, Brooklyn, and Council of Jewish Women, New York and Brooklyn offices

 

 

Grodno Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Bronka Winicki (Klibanski)

Hasya Belicka (Borenstein)

Zila Schachnes

Liza Czapnik

Motl Kuperman*

Nahum Kravyets*

Shayke Matus

 

 

Grosser Einsatz, see Large Deposit and Community for Peace and Construction

 

 

Group “G,” Belgium

Georges Livchitz, leader

 

 

Groupement de Coordination, France

Baron Robert de Rothschild, president

 

 

Gulyayev Jewish Partisan Unit, Soviet Union

 

 

Haavarah (Transfer), November 1933 - July 1939

Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)

Vaad Leumi (Jewish National Council of Palestine)

German Zionist Organization

Anglo-Palestine Bank

Hitachduth Olej Germania

 

 

Habonim, Labor Zionist Youth, Youth Section of Poale Zion-Zeire Zion, Jewish National Workers’ Alliance and Pioneer Woman’s Organization, New York, NY, USA, established 1920; members: 3,000; branches: 160; publications: Haboneth; News and Views; Menahel

 

 

Hachscharah, Germany, England, 1934-1944

S. Adler-Rudel, director

 

 

Hadassa, the Women’s Zionist Organization of America, New York, NY, USA, established 1912; members: 100,000; publication: Hadassah Newsletter

Mrs. David de Sola Pool, president

Juliet N. Benjamin, vice president, secretary

Rose L. Halpren (1896-1978), president

Henrietta Szold, honorary president

Mrs. Edward Jacobs, honorary vice president

Mrs. Harry Berkman

Mrs. Sundel Doniger

Mrs. I. M. Golden

Mrs. Robert Szold

Mrs. Samuel J. Rosensohn, treasurer

Mrs. A. D. Schoolman, secretary

Mrs. Emanuel Halpern, recording secretary

War Emergency Committee

 

 

Haffkine Foundation, established 1930, Switzerland

Professor Haffkind

 

 

Haganah (Hebrew: Defense; founded Aliyah Bet in Europe), Palestine, established 1920; under command of Histradrut

Shaul Meirov-Avigur

David Nameri

 

 

Haguenau Company, France

Marc Haguenau, founder, commander

 

 

Ha-Kibbutz he-Mahad, Palestine.  Supported Aliya Bet activities in rescuing Jews in Europe.  Many Kibbutz members joined the rescue missions.

 

 

Ha-Ma’avak (The Struggle) Jewish Partisan Battalion, Vilna, Lithuania

Ahron Aharonovitz, commander

Berl Shershenevski, political commissar

 

 

Hancewicz Work Camp, Belorussia, 320 Jews escaped in mid-August, 1942, some joined partisans

Yehuda Ciklik, partisan, see also Lenin Ghetto

 

Ha-No’ar ha-Tsiyyoni (Zionist youth movement)

 

 

Ha-Nokem (The Avenger) Jewish Partisan Battalion, Vilna, Lithuania

Abba Kovner, commander

Isser Schmidt, commissar

 

 

Harand Bewegung, Vienna, Austria

 

 

Harkness Fund, Great Britain

 

 

Hashomer Hatzair, Zionist Youth, New York, NY, USA, established 1925; members: 3,000; branches: 26; publications: Youth and Nation, Hamenahel, Niv Haboger, Hameorer

Secretariat:

Moshe Furmansky

Elana Margolis

Shlomoh Perla

Riuka Weinberg

 

 

Hauptstelle für Jüdische Wanderfürsorge (Main Department for Jewish Migration Welfare), Germany, worked with Reichvertretung der Juden in Deutschland

 

 

He-Halutz (Hebrew: “The Pioneer”; Zionist Youth Movement), part of Mapai Party, established 1920s

 

 

He-Haluts Ha-Lohem, Fighting Organization of Pioneer Jewish Youth in Krakow (Organizacja Bojowa Zydowskie Mlodziezy Chalucowej), established August 1942, see Krakow Ghetto Fighters

 

 

He Halutz Resistance (Zionist Youth Resistance; Gordonia, Brit Haknarnim, Betar, Habonim, Hashomer Hatzair, Dror, Maccabi [Makkabi], Hatzair, Hanoar Hatzioni [Noar Zioni], Bnei Akiva), Budapest, Romania and the Netherlands, 1944-1945

Poland – Zwi Goldfarb, (Dror)

Slovakia – Rafi (Freidl) ben Shalom, (Hashomer Hatzair); Peretz Revesz (Maccabi Hatzair)

Budapest – David (Gur) Grosz, Sándor (Alexander) Ben Eretz Groszmann, Yitzhak (Mimish) Horváth, József Mayer, Moshe (Alpan) Pil, Moshe Rosenberg, Efra (Agmon) Teichmann

Hagana Committee (He Halutz)

Moshe Rosenberg, leader

Menachem (Meno) Klein

Leon Blatt

Dov Avramcsik

 

 

He Halutz World Center (Weltzentrale des Hechaluz), Geneva

Nathan Schwalb (Dror)

 

 

He Halutz Zionist Pioneering, Berlin, Germany

Dr. E. Frank, director

 

 

He Halutz Zionist Pioneering, Paris

 

 

He Halutz Zionist Pioneering, The Netherlands

Joachim (Shushu) Simon

 

 

Heberw Benevolent Society, Panama City, Colon, Panama

A. J. Lindo, chairman, treasurer

 

 

Hebrew Committee for National Liberation (HCNL), established 1939; front group for Committee for a Jewish Army of Stateless Palestinian Jews (CJA), part of Irgun Zvi Leumi; in 1942, the CJA morphed into the Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe (ECJSPE), also called the Bergson Group

 

 

Hebrew Free Loan Society, USA

 

 

Hebrew Order of David (HOD), South Africa, established 1904, HQ Johannesberg

 

 

Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS-ICA-EMIGDIRECT; Jewish Colonization Association; United Committee for Jewish Immigration; HICEM), New York, USA, established 1885, reorganized 1901, 1926

John L. Bernstein, chairman 1934, executive committee

Samuel A. Telsey, director 1933

Abraham Herman, director 1939

Dr. Abraham Coralnik (died 1937)

HIAS Board Members, 1933-1939

Edward M. Benton

Rabbi Aaron D. Burack (Yeshiva University)

Solomon Dingol, HIAS Board 1934, editor

Harry Epstein

Herman J. Greenhut

Murray I. Gurfein (lawyer)

Reubin Guskin (Pres. Workingman’s Circle)

Harry G. Herman

Harry Lang (journalist)

Dr. David Linetsky

Honorable Adolph Stern (Independent Order Brith Abraham)

New York – Board of Directors, 1942

Max Gottschalk, president

Louis Oungre, treasurer

Dr. James Bernstein, managing director, European Director, Paris, London

John L. Bernstein, chairman, administrative committee

Abraham Herman, secretary

Samuel A. Telsey

Solomon Dingol

Edouard Oungre, managing director

Ilja Dijour, executive secretary

USA

Bernard Kornbluth (New York, Pier Service)

Murray Levine, executive director, Philadelphia

Paris

Edouard Oungre

Vladimir Shah

Raphael Spanien

Alexander Trocki

Marseilles

Edouard Oungre

Vladimir Shah

Marie Kotowicz*

Nathan Kramarz*

Suzanne Lotterman*

Marcel Meyer*

M. Parascou*

I. Rosengarten*

Raphael Spanien

Alexander Trocki

Marguite Dreyfus*

M. Frangeort*

Izerliss*

Jean Jacob*

Joskite Jacob*

S. Sambor*

R. Volteger*

Algiers

René Meyer (later Priemier of France)

Bernard Mélamede

Edoard Goslen

Belgium: Brussels – Vladimir Shah

Casablanca – Raphael Spanien (JDC)

China – Shanghai

Isaiah Rozowsky (Kovno HIAS-ICA)

Lazar Epstein (JEAS Warsaw)

Italy: Rome, Naples, Bari, Milan (November 1944) – Raphael Spanien

Latin America: Buenos Aires – Edouard Oungre

Lithuania

Kovno (Kaunas) – Moshe Schalit*

Vilna – I. Valk*

Yehoshua Razovsky

Poland: Warsaw (JEAS)

Leon Alter, executive director

Israel Bernstein

Portugal

Dr. James Bernstein (Lisbon)

Abraham Amram (Lisbon)

Professor Moses B. Amzalak

Dr. Augusto d’Essaguy

Ilja Dijour (Lisbon)

Romania – Bucharest

Lazar Grousman* and family*

Dr. Mauriciu Singher (after liberation, September 1944)

S. Bertrand Jacobson (1945)

Turkey – Istanbul

S. Bertrand Jacobson (near east representative)

David J. Schweitzer (winter 1944)

Delegates

Abraham Herman

Samuel A. Telsey

Isaac L. Asofsky

Dr. James Bernstein, European director, Lisbon, Portugal

Professor Moses B. Amzalak

Dr. Augusto d’Esaguy

 

 

Hebrew Union College, Jewish Institute of Religion, Cincinati, OH, established 1922 by Stephen S. Wise, placed refugees in college

Rabbi Julian Morgenstern, President of the College

 

 

Hechalutz, New York, NY, USA; groups: 7; members: 750; publication: Hechalutz Bulletin

Central Committee (Mercaz)

Nachum Guttman, president

Francis Foster, executive secretary

Edward A. Norman, executive committee, national board

Isaac Imber, executive vice chairman

 

 

Helsinki Jewish Congregation – Refugee Committee, established August 1938

Bernhard Blaugrund, chairman

D. Burstein

H. Engel

B. Nemeschansky

B. Salutskij

M. Waprinsky

 

 

HIAS, see Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society

 

 

HIAS Immigration Bank, Rescue Through Emigration Campaign, 1940

Hon. Mitchel May, national chairman

Joseph Pulvermacher, chairman businessman council

 

 

HICEM, see Hebrew Sheltering and Immigration Aid Society (HIAS), Jewish Colonization Association (ICA) and Emmigration Board (EM)

 

 

High Commissioner for Refugees, League of Nations, headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland

Jewish members of subcommittee – Professor Selig Brodetzky, Lewis Strauss, Dr. Nahum Goldmann, Dr. Chaim Weigmann, Professor Norman Bentwich

 

 

HIJEFS, see Relief Organization for Jewish Refugees Abroad

 

 

Hilfskomite für Jüdische Flüchtlinge, Yugoslavia

Zagreb Secretary: Alexander Klein+, JDC representative

Belgrade Secretary: Sime Spitzer+*, JDC representative

Dragutin Rosenberg

 

 

Hilfsverein, see Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland

 

 

Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, see Relief Organization of Jews in Germany, Germany, worked with Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland

Max Warburg

Mark Wischnitzer, secretary general

 

 

Hilfsverein deutschsprechender Juden, Buenos Aires, Argentina, established 1933

 

 

Hilfsverein für Jüdische Flüchtlinge im Ausland (HIJEFS), Switzerland, see Relief Organization for Jewish Refugees Abroad

 

 

Hilfsvereinigung für Jüdische Einwanderer, Chile, established October 1933, called CISROCO after December 1938

Sali Hochschild, founder, president

Gertrude Hirschberg, director

 

 

Histadrut, Committee for Alleviating the Distress of our Comrades in the Diaspora, Tel Aviv, Palestine

Melich Neustadt, chair

 

 

Histadrut Emissaries, Switzerland

The Histadrut had four representatives in Geneva.  They were Nathan Schwalb (Yishuv representative), Abraham Silberschein (RELICO), Shmuel Scheps (Yishuv representative), and Chaim Posner (Yishuv representative).  Histadrut’s committee for Alleviating the Distress of our Comrades in the Diaspora, in Tel Aviv, was chaired by Melech Neustadt.

 

 

Histadrut ha’Ovdim ha’Kelalit Shel ha Ovdim be Eret Israel (Hebrew: General Federation of Workers in the Land of Israel), part of Mapai Party, Palestine, established 1920, see also Aliya Bet

 

 

Histadrut ha Zionit ha Hadasha, Palestine, founded by Ze’ev Jabotinsky, established 1935

 

 

Hitachdut ha-Zionim ha Revisionistim ha-Zohar (Association of Revisionist Zionists), Palestine, established 1925, founded by Ze’ev Jabotinsky, see also Histadrut ha Zionit ha Hadasha

 

 

Hitachdut Olei Czechoslovakia (HOC; Hebrew: Association of Czechoslovakian Immigrants), Palestine, established 1938

Frantisek Seidmann, chairman

 

 

Hitachdut Olein Germania (HOG, HEB; Association of German Immigrants), Palestine, established 1932

 

 

Hofheimer Foundation, USA

 

 

Hollandia-Kattenberg Clothing Company, Netherlands, had underground Jewish resistance group in clothing company

 

 

Horodok Ghetto Fighters, Lithuania

Elijahu Lidski, leader

 

 

Horodok Ghetto Jewish Council (near Vilna), Lithuania

Efraim Retskin, chairman

Shmaryahu Zuckerman, vice chairman

Nachman Swirski, treasurer

 

 

House Committees (Komitety Domowe), Warsaw, Poland, established Septmeber 1939, there were 2000 committees by May 1940

Emmanuel Ringelblum, director

 

 

ICA, see Jewish Colonization Association (JCA)

 

 

Ilja Ghetto Underground

Noah Svirsky (Hechalutz Hatzair)

Zalman Silber

 

 

Immigrant Workers (Laborers) Organization (Main d’Oeuvre Immigrée; MOI), Jewish Section, France

L. Lerman

J. Kaminsky

 

 

Institute of Jewish Affairs (IJA), part of the World Jewish Congress (WJC), established 1941

Jacob Robinson, chairman 1941-1948

 

 

Inter-Aid Committee for Children from Germany, England

 

 

Intermovement Commission for the Evacuees (Commission Intermouvement Auprès des Évacues), France

 

 

International Committee for the Relief of European Jews (IC; “Komor Committee”), Shanghai, China, established July 1938

Sir Victor Sassoon, founder

Paul Komor+, president 1938-1941

Walter Frank, secretary

Robert Peritz

Victor Sasson, funded IC

 

 

International Committee for the Placement of Intellectual Refugees (Comité International pour le Placement d’Intellectuels Refugiés)

Marie Ginzburg, Switzerland

 

International Committee to Aid Jewish Refugees

 

 

International Jewish Colonization Society, The Hague, established 1938

 

 

International League Against Antisemitism, France (Ligue Internationale Contre l’Antisemitisme; LICA), established 1927; changed name in 1937 to International League Against Racism and Anti-Semitism

 

 

International Migration Service

 

 

International Trade and Investment Agency (INTRIA), London, England

 

 

International Union for the Rescue of Children (Union International de Secours aux Enfants), Switzerland

 

 

Irgun Olein Merkaz Europa, merging of Association of Czecholovakian Immigrants and Association of German Immigrants), Palestine

 

 

Irgun Olim Bilti Legali’im (Hebrew: Organization of Illegal Immigrants), Palestine, established early 1930s

 

 

Irgun Zvai Leumi (IZL; National Military Organization), founded by Hagana and Betar Party membes, founded Af-Al-Pi, established 1931

Ze’ev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky (1880-1940), founder

David Raziel (1910-1941), commander

Reuben Hecht, Irgun representative for Aliyah Bet

Menachem Begin (later prime minister of Israel)

Abraham “Yair” Stern (1907-1942)

Ehud Avriel, Vienna

 

 

“Iskra” Partisan Unit, see Bielsky Partisan Unit

Mordechai Ginsberg

Bezalel Ginsberg

Fruma Tanpel

 

Israelite Welfare Committee, Lyon, established March 1941

Paul Montoux, president

 

 

Israelitische Alliance zu Wien, see Vienna Jewish Alliance

 

 

Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien (IKG), see Jewish Cultural Center, Vienna

 

 

Italian Jewish Aid Committee (Comitato Assistenza Ebrei in Italia; COMASEBIT)

 

 

Italy-Palestine Committee (Comitato Italia Palestina; CIP), Italy, established 1928

Leone Carpi, chairman

 

 

Iwaniska Jewish Council, Radom District, Poland (300 youth escaped)

Rabbi Chaim Ikheskel Rabinowitz*, Council member

 

 

Iwje Ghetto Police, Lida County

Leib Kalmanowicz*, deputy commandant

 

 

Iwje Ghetto Underground, 200 Jews escaped thie ghetto on January 16, 1943, when the ghetto was annihilated

 

 

Janow Ghetto Underground, five organized groups escaped

Chana Gorodeka

 

 

JRC, see Jewish Religious Council, Prague, Czechoslovakia

 

 

Jeuness Juive de France, Marselle, 1941

 

 

Jeunesses Communistes Juives, France, see Jewish Communist Youth

 

 

Jew Aid Agency (Jüdische Soziale Selbsthilfe), also Jüdische Unterstützungsstelle

 

 

JEWCOM, Kobe, Japan, established September 1940

Ernest Baerwald, Yokohama, JDC

Mrs. Hockheimer

Abraham Kutsuji

 

 

Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA; Yishuv; also known as the Jewish Agency or Palastina-Amt), David Ben Gurion, leader, established 1922

Jewish Agency for Palestine Executive (JAE)

Political Department – Moshe Sherk (Sharet)

Treasurer – Finance Department – Eliezer Kaplan

Labor Department (General Zionist, A) – Yitzhak Gruenbaum

Commerce and Industry – Rabbi Lieb Yehuda-Fishman, Emil Shmorak

Immigration Department – Eliyahu Dobkin (Mapai), Moshe Shapira (Hadoel Hamizrachi)

Haifa Interogation Bureau

Emanuel Yelin (Vilensky), head

Gideon Roper, assistant

Organization Department – Leo Lauterbach, head

Jewish Agency Field Offices (Palestine Offices)

London, England

Berl Locker

Simon Marks (1888-1964), member executive, vice president English Zionist Federation

Geneva, Switzerland - The office was co-chaired by Richard Lichtheim (1939-1945) and Dr. Chaim Posner (1940-1945).  This was a major listening post for Yishuv leaders during the war.  Lichtheim and Posner produced reports on the murder of Jews in Europe.

Richard Lichtheim

Dr. Fritz Ulmann

Dr. Chaim Posner

Turkey

USA

Morris Rothenberg, chairman, administrative committee

Austria

Dr. Alois Rothenberg

Ze’ev Willy Ritter (He-Halutz)

Prague, Czechoslovakia - The Palestine Office arranged for Jews to emigrate from Czechoslovakia to Palestine.  Prominent members were Jacob Edelstein*, Dr. Franz Kahn* (youth and Halutzim), Frantisek Friedmann (emigration), Jacob Reiss and Otto Zucker (treasurer).

Budapest Hungary

Joel Brand

Otto Komoly*

Mihaly Salamon

Zvi Szilágyi

Bucharest, Romania

Chairman, Moshe Orvchowski*

Chairman, Meir Rubin (Orat)

Shmuel Enzer

Moritz Geiger

(Ergosi) Nussbaum

Palestine Office and Rescue Committee, Lisbon, Portugal

Wilfred Israel and Fritz Lichtenstein were sent as emissaries from the Yishuv to Lisbon, Portugal, on rescue missions.  A Yishuv office was opened in Lisbon in April 1944.

Jewish Action

Committee for the Rescue of European Jewry, Jerusalem, Palestine, established January 1943, Moshe Sharett, Eliezer Kaplan (60 people)

Joint Rescue Committee of the Jewish Agency (Va’ad he-Hatsala ha-Muehad She-Le-Yad he-Sokhnut ha-Yuehudit; Committee for the Jews of Occupied Europe)

Itsak Gruenbaum (chair), Bernard Joseph, Itzak Ben-Zvi, Sholomo Zalman Shragai, Yehoshua Suprasky, Binyamin Mintz, Rabbi Isaac Meir Levin, Joseph Klarman, Zvi (Herman) Segal, Moshe Shapira, Eliyahu Dobkin, Dr. Emil Schmorak

Secretariat – Maximilian Apolinary Hartglas, Avraham Haft, Joseph Kleinbaum

Political Department – Ehud Avriel, Teddy Kollek, Moshe Shertock, Moshe Kleinbaum (Sneh; Emergency Advisory Committee)

Immigration Department, Istanbul, Germany – Eliyahu Dobkin

Security – Eliyahu Golomb, Shaul Mierov, Zvi Yehieli (Schachter)

Advisors – Berl Katznelson, Yaakov Hazan, Golda Meyerson (Meir), David Ramirez, Yitzak Tabenkin

London, England

Tehran, Iran – Reuvan Shefer, Avraham Zilberberg, Zipporah Shertock

Lithuania – Zvi Brick, Rabbi Chayim Ozer Grodzenski

Lisbon, Portugal – Wilifrid B. Israel, Peretz Lichtenstein, Eliahu Dobkin

Romania – Abraham Zissu

Geneva, Switzerland – Richard Lichtheim, Nathan Schwalb (Dror), Moshe Pazner

New York, USA

Committee of Four, Jewish Agency (Committee for Polish Jewry), established September 1939

Yitzhak Gruenbaum

Moshe Shapira

Eliahu Dobkin

Emil Schmorak

Action Committee for the Jews of Europe (Committee of Five), Jewish Agency, established November 1942

Yitzhak Gruenbaum

Moshe Shapira

Eliahu Dobkin

Emil Schmorak

Dov (Bernard) Joseph

Mossad le Aliyah Bet (Organization for Illegal Immigration, also known as “Aliyah Bet”), Haganah (Underground Jewish Army), Palestine. Operated from Paris until November 1939, thereafter from Geneva, Switzerland.  Offices in Bucharest, Athens, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Istanbul, Vienna, Bulgaria, Germany.

Eliyahu Golomb, head of Haganah

Eliyahu Dobkin, assistant head of the Jewish Agency, Aliyah section

Yitzak Tabenkin (Hakibbutz Hameuhad)

Shaul Avigur (Shaul Meirou), head in 1939

Vienna, Austria – Moshe Averbuch-Agami, Mordecai Katz (Betar Chief in Vienna), Ehud Avriel, Dr. Alois Rothenberg (Palestine office), Willi Ritter (General Secretary Hehalutz), Mirco Rudich, Gerta Hass, Moshe Green (Palestine office), Renée Weisner, Zwi Rechter, Jukel

Bulgaria – Baruch Confino, Ze’ev Venia Hardari

Prague, Czechoslovakia – Robert Mandler*, Harous Borjas

Paris, France – Yehuda Braginsky

Germany – Pino Ginsburg

Athens, Greece – Shmarya Tsameret, Yulik Braginsky, Levi Swartz, Zvi Yehieli, Shmariah Z’amereth

Teheran, Iran – Rueven Shefer, Avraham Zilberberg, Zipporah Shertok

Italy – Gideon Rufer (Raphael), Dani Shind (Rome)

Palestine H.Q. Tel Aviv – Moshe Carmil, Shlomo Zimmerman

Poland – Abraham Stavsky, Yulik Braginsky, Dani Shind

Romania – Yosef Barpal, Ruth Klueger-Aliav, Theodore Dankner, Mr. Aronson, Leo Enzer (Palestine office), Eugene Meissner, Yanaki Pandelis

Switzerland – Reuven Hecht (Irgun representative for Aliyah Bet), Zvi Yehieli

Yugoslavia – Aryeh Shindelman

Europe – Zvi Yehieli, Zeev Shind, Moshe Galili (Krivosheyn), David Nameri

Palestine – Yaacov Dostrovsky (Dori), David Hacohen, Israel Galili, Reuven Zaslani (Shiloah)

Committee for Polish Jewry (Jewish Agency), Palestine

Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest (Va’adat ha-Ezra ve-ha-Hatsala-be Budapest; Jewish Agency).  This included General Zionists, Zionist Association of Hungary, Mizrahi, Zvi, Ha Shmer-ha-Tsa’in, Israel, Ichud, Zsidó Tanács (Jewish Council).  Established early 1943. 

Otto Komoly, president (General Zionists, Section A Red Cross)

Rezsö (Rudolf) Kasztner, executive officer

Dov Weiss, secretary

Jeno Frankel (Mizrahi)

Erno (Zvi) Szilagyi (Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa’ir)

Joël Brand, Samuel Springmann (Ichud)

Josko Baumer

Uziel Lichtenberg

Moshe Rosenberg

Siegfried (Stephen) Roth

Moshe Schweiger

Sandor Shalom Offenback

Edre Biss

Miklós (Moshe) Kravz (Mizrahe)

Hansi Brand (Ihud)

Rescue Committee of the Jewish Agency in Turkey, Istanbul (Va’ad ha-Hatsala be-Kushta), established 1943-1944

Haim Barlas (Head of Rescue Committee, Jewish Agency Representative)

Ruth Aliav

Yehuda Arazi

Moshe Averbuch (Agami), “Illegal” Immigration Operations

Shaul Avigur

Ehud Avriel (Jewish Agency, Political Department)

Menachem Bader, Chielf Financial Officer (Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa’ir, Kubbutz Mizra)

Yulik Bradinsky

Simon Brod

Eliyahu Eilat (Jewish Agency, Political Department)

Dr. Joseph Goldin, assistant to Chiam Barlas (Jewish Agency)

Yaakov Griffel (Agudat Israel)

David Hacohen

Venya Hardari (United Kibbutz Movement, Ramat Rachel Kibbutz)

Ira Hirschman (War Refugee Board; WRB)

Joseph Klarman (Revisionst Zionist)

Teddy Kollek (Jewish Agency, Political Department)

Eliezer Leder (Committee for Aid to Polish Refugees)

Akiva Levinsky (Youth Aliya)

Venja Pomerantz, in charge of couriers and contact with Jewish communities (Ha-Me’Uhad, Kibbutz Ramat-Rachel)

Kalman Rozenblat (General Zionists A & B)

Zeev (Dani) Shind (Mossad Aliyah Bet), “Illegal” Immigration Operations

David Zimend (Ha-No’ar ha TsiyyoniI, General Zionists A & B)

Dr. Mordechai Eliash (Yishuv emissary)

Reuben Resnik (JDC representative)

Herbert Katzki (JDC representative)

Eri Jabotinsky (Emergency Committee of the Etzel)

Dr. Meir Weltman Tuval, Yugoslavia community leader, Ihud Olami

Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews (Central Bureau)

 

 

Jewish Agricultural Society, see also Baron de Hirsch Fund, USA, established 1900 by the Baron de Hirsch Fund; helped Jewish agriculturalists to emigrate to the United States

 

 

Jewish Agricultural Work, Ltd. (Jüdische Landarbeits; AG), Germany, established 1937, affiliated with Association of Jewish War Veterans (RJF)

 

 

Jewish Aid Center (Jüdische Unterstützungsstelle; JUS), Krakow, Poland

Michael Weichert, director

Dr. Haim Hilfstein

 

 

Jewish Aid Committee, Czechoslovakia, formerly Committee of Aid for Refugees

Dr. Joseph Popper, chairman

Marie Schmolka, Hanna Steiner*, committee leaders

 

 

Jewish Aid Committee for German Jews, The Netherlands

Lodewijk Ernst Visser (1871-1942), founder

 

 

Jewish Antifascist Committee (JAC), Soviet Union, established August 1941

Shlomo (Solomon) Mikhoels

Itzik Feffer

Ilya Ehrenberg

David Bergelson

Lev Kvito

David Hofsheyn

Peretz Markish

Vasily Grossman

Abraham Sutzkerver

 

 

Jewish Army (AJ; Armée Juive), Jewish Resistance Movement, Toulouse, Lyon, Tarn, Nice, Paris, France, established Toulouse January 1942, also known as L’Organization Juive de Combat (OJC), “Blue and White,” partially funded by the Jewish Agency for Palestine and American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

Lucien Lublin, co-founder

Abraham Polanski, co-founder

Jules (Dyka) Jefroykin (JDC), treasurer

Henry Pohrylés (Nice)

Ernst Lambert, commander (Lyon)

David Knout

Joseph Croustillon

Shlomo Steinhorn

Ariane Scriabine-Knout

Eugenie “Genia” Polonski

 

 

Jewish Artists Relief Organization, Germany, established 1933

 

 

Jewish Association of Trinidad, Trinidad, established 1938

Edgar Pereira, president

 

 

Jewish Board of Deputies, South Africa, established 1912

Cecil Lyons, chairman 1935-1940

Gerald N. Lazarus, chairman 1940-1945

 

 

Jewish Center (Centrala Evreilor), Transylvania, Romania, established Feb. 1942, took place of Union of Jewish Communities (Comunitati Evreesti), dissolved December 1941, see also Autonomous Aid Committee, Palestine Office Budarest, Romania

 

 

Jewish Center (Ústredna Zidov; UZ), Slovakia, established 1940, Labor Camp Novaky

Heinrich Swartz, head

Gisi Fleishman+* (1897-1944), head of Emigration Department, Working Group

Rabbi Michael Dov Weissmandel+ (1903-1951), Working Group

Andrej Steiner (b. 1908), head, Labor and Construction, Working Group

Dr. Tibor Kovács (d. 1958), Zionist, UZ Secretariat, Working Group

Ernst Ables, UZ, Working Group

Dr. Oskar Neumann, president, Zionist Histradrut, last head of UZ, Working Group

 

 

Jewish Community Center, Vienna (Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien; IKG), Vienna Jewish Community and Zionist Organization, established 1890, operated under Gestapo direction after 1938

Dr. Desider Friedman, president (pre-war)

Dr. Josef Löwenherz*, executive director, 1936-1942

Emil Engel, secretary

Rosa Rachel Swartz, director Youth Social Welfare Office

Dr. Isador Körner, chairman of Ha-koah, financed by JDC and Council for German Jewry, London

Mr. Förster, head of education

Mrs. Sophie Löwenherz, WIZO, training

Dr. Edward Pachtmann, Zionist Office

Dr. Alois Rothenberg, Palestine Office

Mr. Mautner, dist. of ration cards

Ehud Avriel (Georg Überall), Irgun, Zionist Youth Leader

Dr. Oskar Grünbaum+

Ze’ev Willy Ritter, He-Halutz

Rabbi Murmelstein

 

 

Jewish Central Committee, Czechoslovakia

 

 

Jewish Central Information Bureau (Far East Bureau), Shanghai, China

Meyer Birman

Isaiah Rozowsky (HIAS-ICA Kovno)

Lazar Epstein (JEAS, Warsaw)

 

 

Jewish Central Information Office (JCIO), Amsterdam, Holland, established 1934; moved to London in 1939 and renamed Wiener Library

David Cohen, president

Alfred Wiener, director

 

 

Jewish Chaplaincy (Aumônerie Générale Israélite), France, established 1942

Rabbi René Hirschler*, founder

 

 

Jewish Colonization Association (ICA), Paris and London, established 1891, also affiliated with HICEM, see also HICEM

Baron Maurice de Hirsch, founder

Sir Leonard Cohen, president 1929-1934

Sir Osmond d’Avigdor Goldsmid, president 1934-1940

Leonard Montefiore, president 1940-1944

Louis Oungre, general manager

 

 

Jewish Colonization Commission, Warsaw, Poland

 

 

Jewish Colonization Society

Joseph Rosen

 

 

Jewish Combat Organization (OJC; Organisation Juive de Combat), France, formed by merging Jewish Army (AJ) and French Jewish Scouts (EIF)

Jules Jefroykin

 

 

Jewish Combatant’s League (Zsidó Frontharcos Szövetség)

 

 

Jewish Commercial Training School, Vienna, Austria

 

 

Jewish Committee for Children from Germany and Central Europe

 

 

Jewish Committee for Relief Abroad, 1943-1944, England

 

 

Jewish Committee of Mutual Assistance in Budapest (Waadat Ezra Bö-Hazza Lah Bö Budapest; WAADA), established January 1943, Budapest, Hungary

Otto Komoly*

Dr. Rezsö Kastner

Samuel Springman

André Biss

Jöel Brand

Ernst Szilagyi

 

 

Jewish Committee of Prague, Bohemia-Moravia, Czechoslovakia, see Supreme Council of the Jewish Religious Congregations of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia

 

 

Jewish Communal Self Help (Society), Poland, Lithuania, 412 branches in Poland, 1942, see also Central Agency for Care of Orphans

Isaac Gitterman* (1889-1943), JDC Poland, Lithuania

 

 

Jewish Communist Youth, France (Jeunesses Communistes Juives)

 

 

Jewish Community Center, Vienna (Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien; IKG), see Jewish Cultural Center, Vienna

 

 

Jewish Community of Rome

Ugo Foá

 

 

Jewish Congregations of Viipuri and Turku, Helsinki, Finland

 

 

Jewish Consistory of Belgium, 1940-1944, became co-ordinating Committee for Jewish Communities in spring 1941

Rabbi Salomon Ulmann+

   

Jewish Consistory of Bulgaria (and Underground; Zentralna Konsistoria)

Leon Farhi, chairman

Haim Keshales

Josefico Levi

Josef Geron, chairman

Colonel Avram Tadzhler, president

 

 

Jewish Consistory of Paris (ACIP)

 

 

Jewish Coordinating Council (underground, illegal), Bucharest, Romania

Wilhelm Fischer (World Jewish Congress)

Moshe (Moses) Zimmer

Arnold Schwefelberg (Refugee Aid Committee)

Fred Saraga (Refugee Aid Committee, Autonomous Committee for Assistance, JDC representative)

 

 

Jewish Coordination Committee (Zydowski Kommitet Koordynacyjnyi; ZKK), Poland, established October 1942

 

 

Jewish Coordination Committee (Joodse Coordinatiecommissie), The Hague, Netherlands

Judge Lodewijk Ernst Visser (1871-1942), chairman, founder Jewish Aid Committee for German Jews

H. Gans, founder (Gans Group)

Dr. Polak Daniels (worked with World Council of Churches)

 

 

Jewish Council, Enschede, Holland, see Enschede Jewish Council

Leendert Overduin, Protestant minister (non-Jew)

Sig Menco

Gerard Sanders

Isidoor van Dam

 

 

Jewish Council (Zsidó Tanács), Budapest, Hungary, see also Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest

Otto Komoly* (1892-1945), president (General Zionists; Va’ada), Department A, International Red Cross

Rezsö Kasztner, executive officer

Dov Weiss, secretary (Va’ada)

Jenö (Eugene) Frankel (Mizrahi, Va’ada)

Fülöp Freudiger

Miksa Domonkos, Technical Department

Lajös Stöckler

Rabbi Béla Berend

Ernö Petö

Zoltan Rónai, Police Liaison

 

 

Jewish Council, Czechoslovakia, see Jewish Religious Council (JRC), Prague, Czechoslovakia, see also Supreme Council of the Jewish Religious Congregations of Bohemia, Moravia & Silesia

 

 

Jewish Council (Evreesc), Transylvania

 

 

Jewish Council (Consiliul Evreec), Romania

Wilhelm Filderman, founder

 

 

Jewish Council, Slovakia, see Jewish Center, Slovakia

 

 

Jewish Council for Russian War Relief, New York, NY, USA, established 1942; affiliated with Russian War Relief; publication: For Soviet Russia

Moses I. Finkelstein, executive secretary

Louis Levine, chairman

 

 

Jewish Cultural League (Jüdischer Kulturbund), Germany

 

 

Jewish Defense Committee (Comité de Defénse des Juifs; CDJ), headquarters Brussels, Belgium

Jewish members:

Hertz (Joseph/Ghert) Jospa+, leader, organizer

Hava (Yvone) Jospa, wife

Abusz (Abouse) Werber, Poale Zione

Israël (Maurice) Mandelbaum, Solidarité Juive

Chaim Perelman, professor, Free Univeristy, Brussels

Benjamin (Benno) Nykerk

Edourd Rotkel, secretary, Jewish Community, Brussels, Belgium

Eugene Hellendael, Brussels

Roger Van Praag, Secours d’Hiver (Winter Help)

David Ferdman, CDJ, finances

Ida Sterno (Jeanne), social worker

Fela Perelman

Maurice Heiber (Héber), head, Children’s Section

Suzanne Moons-Lepetit (Brigitte), Children’s Section

Non-Jewish members:

Yvone Nevéjean, leader, ONE

Andrée Geulen

Father (Abbé) Joseph André, L’Aide Chrétienne aux Israelites (ACI)

Paul Renard-Andriesse

Pieter Audenardt

Victorine Audenardt-Plasschaert

Germain C. Vanit Hoff Audenardt

Charles Berhin, assistant to Father André

Eucher

Emile Hambresin+ (Catholic), editor, L’Avant Garde, president Comité Belge Contre Racism, member Ligue pour Combattre l’Antisemitisme, Children’s Section

Flore Leroy

 

 

Jewish Defense Committee, Budapest, Hungary

Dr. Miklós (Moshe) Schweiger (Ihud)

Móshe Schweiger

 

 

Jewish Einheit Committee, Paris, 1944

 

 

Jewish Family Welfare Society of Brooklyn, New York

 

 

Jewish Fighters Organization (Organization Juive de Combat; OJC), established 1943; comprised of merger of Armée Juive and Jewish Scouts, see Jewish Scounts

 

 

Jewish Fighting Organization (JFO; Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa; ZOB), founded summer 1942, Warsaw Ghetto, Poland, made up of 500 youth, pioneer and Zionist organizations

Mordecai Anielewics* (1919-1943), commander, Hashomir Hatzair

Dr. Marek Edelman (b. 1921), deputy commander, Bund leader

Joseph Kaplain* (1913-1942), co-founder

Tusia Altman* (1918-1943), co-founder, Hashomer Hatzair

Irena Adamowics (1910-1963; non-Jew)

Chaim Arbuz* (1921-1943), Grovas Unit

Zachariah Artstein* (1923-1943), Dror, CDR Arstein Group

Dvora Baran* (1920-1943), Chanoch Guttman Group

Heshet “Zvi” Bauminger* (1919-1943)

Menachem Beigleman* (1921-1943), Berl Broide Group

Hirsh Berlinski* (1908-1943), High Command, CDR Berlinski Group

Yanek Bilek* (d. 1943)

Marek Blank* (1922-1943), Gordonia Group

Yurek Blones* (1924-1943), Commander Blones Group

Itzhak Bluestein* (1923-1943), commander, Bluestein Group

Abraham “Abrasha” Blum* (1905-1943), Bund leader

Tuvia Bozikovsky (d. 1959), Dror

Shmuel Braslav* (1921-1943), leader, Hashomer Hatzair, High Command

Berl Broide* (1915-1943), founder Dror, commander Broide Group

Aaron (Pavel) Bruskin* (d. 1943), PPR

Aaron Carmi

Aaron Chmielnitzky

Mosze Czompel

Abraham Diamond* (1900-1943), Poale Zion, Berlinski Group

Abrahm Drier* (1916-1943)

Sewek Dumski* (1925-1943)

Zvi Edelstein* (1922-1943), Dror, Benjamin Wald Unit

Eliahu Ehrlich* (d. 1943), Poale Zion

Joseph Ferber* (1921-1943), Hashomir Hatzair

Zalman Friedrich (Zigmund)* (1913-1943), Bund

Haim Frymer

Edward Foundaminski

Regina Fuden

Chava Fulman

Eliezer Geller* (1919-1943), co-founder Gordonia, group commander

Feigele Goldstein* (1922-1943), Blones Unit

Itzhak Greenbaum* (1923-1943), Dror, Artstein Group

Mordechai Grobas* (1921-1943), section commander, Grobas Group

Yechiel Gurni* (1908-1943), Berlinski Group

Jacob Gutterman* (1921-1943), Artstein Group

Chanoch Guttman* (1921-1943), Dror commander, Guttman Group

Miriam Heinsdorf* (1919-1943), Hashomer Hatsair, Vinogron Group

Shimon Heller* (1921-1943), Hashomer Hatzair, Novodvorky Group

Edek Himmelfarb* (d. 1943), Feigenblatt Group

Adolph Horberg* (1922-1943), Guttman Group

Junghajzer

Zwi Katsenelson+* (1925-1943), Dror

Michal Klepfisz* (1913-1943), Bund

Koulansky (first name unknown)

Margalit Landau

Zippora Lehrer* (1920-1943)

Shanan Lent*

Zion Levsky*, PPR and ZOB

Zivia Lubetkin (1914-1976), Dror, co-founder, commander, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Bronka Manelak* (d. 1943)

Manfred* (first name unknown; 1923-1943), Dror, Artstein Group

Marek Mayrovitch* (1911-1943), commander, Fighting Group

Vladka Meed, née Peltel (b. 1921), Bund

Yohanan Morgenstern* (1908-1943), National Jewish Council, Manager of Finance, ZOB

Rysiek Moselman+* (1922-1943), PPR

Eliyahu Moses (Andzei Smith)+* (1913-1942), founder PPF, Anti-Fascist Bloc

David Novodvorsky*, co-organized Hashomer Hatzair, commander Novodvorsky Group

Penina Papier

Regina Poden* (1922-1943)

Jacob Prasker* (1913-1943), co-founder Zionist Youth Underground, commander ZOB unit

Zipporah Rabov* (1913-1943), Guttan Unit Zionist Youth

Simcha (Kazik) Rapheiser, Guttman Group

Simcha Ratajzer-Rotem (Kazik)

Michael Rosenfeld* (1913-1943), High Command ZOB, member PPR

Lutek Rotblat*, Akiva, ZOB commander, director Children’s Orphanage

Eliahu Rozanski

Label Rozowski* (1920-1943)

Vevel Rozowski* (1916-1943), Bund, commander ZOB Unit

Moshe Rubin* (1920-1943), Artstein Group

Moshe Rubinchik* (1915-1943), Halutz

Elek (Eliahu) Ruzhanski* (1923-1943), Anilewitz Group

Tuvia Scheingut (Tadek)

Berek Schneidemil, Bund leader

Batya Silman* (d. 1943), Dror, Guttman Unit

Berek Sznajdmil, Bund

Mordechai Tenenbaum* (1916-1943)

Yehuda Vengrover* (1920-1943)

Israel Chaim Vilner

Shlomo Vinogron* (1923-1943), commander Vinogron Group

Benjamin Wald* (1920-1943), commander Wald Group

Aryeh (Yurek) Wilner* (1917-1943), Halutz leader, Vilna, Czenstochow, Krakow

Henryk “Waclaw” Wolinski (1901-1986; non-Jew)

Yehiel*

Yitzhak Zuckerman (1915-1981; Yitzhak Cukierman “Antek”), organized Dror and Hachalutz, co-founder ZOB

 

 

Jewish Fighting Partisans, Warsaw Ghetto, Poland, miscellaneous affiliations

Battia Berman (d. 1953), Poale Zion

Abraham Geffner* (1873-1943)

Irena Gelblum

Sara Granatstein* (1925-1943)

Yurek Greenspan* (1919-1943)

Levi Grusaltz* (1919-1943), head resistance group

Shalom (Stephan) Gryek, Poale Zion leader

David Horberg* (1925-1943), led resistance group

Izhak Katsenelson+* (1886-1944), Dror, poet, author

Jadworshi, leader Fighting Group

Menachem Kon* (1893-1943), helped establish Oneg Shabat

Yosef Kornianski, Halutz Underground

Emilia Landau

Samuel Meretik (Zimmerman)+* (d. 1942), organized )PPR, founder Anti-Fascist Bloc

Emanuel Ringelbaum, PhD* (1899-1943), leader underground, founder Oneg Shabat

Zigmund Warman

Chanoch (Henrick) Zilberberg* (1924-1943), member PPR, Underground leader

Rebecca Granz* (1915-1943), also Czenstochow and Bedzin Ghettoes

 

 

Jewish Fortress (Fortresse Juive)

 

 

Jewish Immigrant Aid Society of Canada (JIAS), established 1919 in Toronto

 

 

Jewish Information Bureau, New York, NY, USA, established 1932; members: 350

Bernard G. Richards, chairman of the board

 

 

Jewish Labor Bund, Poland

 

 

Jewish Labor Committee (JLC), New York, NY, USA established 1933; publications: Facts and Opinions; Voice of the Unconquered

Charney B. Vladeck, chairman

Adolph Held, chairman

David Dubinsky, treasurer

Jacob Pat, executive secretary

Joseph Baskin, secretary

Harry Berger

Jacob Blume

Israel Feinberg

Morris Feinstone

Reuben Guskin

Julius Hochman

Louis Hollander

Eph Jeshurin

Isidore Laderman

Louis Levy

Isidore Nagler

Saul Rifkin

Joseph Schlossberg

Bezalel Sherman

Jacob Siegal

Henry Turk

Joseph Weinberg

Max Zaritsky

 

 

Jewish Local Committee, “IKOPD,” Vilna, Lithuania

 

 

Jewish Military Union (Zydowski Zwiaqzek Wojskowy; ZZW; Davidowicz, 1975), established summer 1942 by members of Betar, Warsaw Ghetto, Poland, 250 members

Dr. David Wdowinsky (1895-1970)

Pavel Frenkiel, commander

Eliahu Halberstein, commander

Eliahu Alberstein

Yitzhak Bilawski

S. Hasensprung

Leon Arieh Rodal*

Nathan Shultz

Dr. Michael Strykowski

 

 

Jewish Mutual Aid Society (Zydowskie Towarzystwo Opkieki Spolecznei; ZETOS), 1939, part of JDC, Poland

Emanuel Ringelblum*, chair

Yitzhak Bornstein, JDC representative

Alexander Zishe Friedman, Agudat Israel

Abraham Gepner

Yitzhak Gitterman*, JDC representative

Shalom Grajek, Po’alei Zion

David Guzik

Menahem Kirschenbaum, General Zionists

Lieb (Leon) Neustadt

Maurycy Orczech (Bund)

Sachne Sagan (LPZ)

Joseph Sak, Po’alei Zion

David Wdowinski, Zionist Revisionst

 

 

Jewish National Committee (ZKN; Zydowski Komitet Narodowy), Warsaw, Poland

Israel Chaim Vilner (Hashomer Hatzair, ZOB)

Dr. Adolf Berman (1906-1978), secretary, Zegota

 

 

Jewish National Fund (JNF; Karen Kayemeth le Israel), Jerusalem, New York, NY, USA, established 1910, incorporated 1926

Joseph Fischer (Joseph Ariel), France

Israel Goldstein, president

Mendel N. Fisher, executive director

Louis Segal, secretary

 

 

Jewish People’s Committee for United Action Against Fascism and Antisemitism

 

 

Jewish People’s Council Against Fascism and Antisemitism (JPC), USA, UK, established 1936; branches: 44; members: 300,000

Max Perlow, acting president

Bernard J. Harkavy, national secretary

 

 

Jewish People’s Fraternal Order, USA

 

 

Jewish People’s Party, Austria (Jüdische Volkspartei; JVP), established 1906 as part of the Austrian Zionist movement, created to protect Austrian Jews, disbanded by government order in 1934; publication: Wiener Morganzeitung

 

 

Jewish Refugees Committee (JRC; German Jewish Aid Committee), Great Britain, established 1933

Otto Schiff, founder

 

 

Jewish Relief Association of Bombay, India, established 1934.  This organization helped refugees from Nazi Germany who stopped in India en route to destinations in the Far East.  It was supported by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.  In 1939, 25,000 Jews resided in India.

 

 

Jewish Relief Committee

 

 

Jewish Religious Council of Prague (JRC), see Supreme Council of the Jewish Religious Congregations of Bohemia, Moravia & Silesia

 

 

Jewish Rescue Committee, see Pracovna Skupina (Working Group)

 

 

Jewish Resettlements, Inc., Great Britain, established 1935

 

 

Jewish Scouts / Jewish Scouting Movement (Éclaireurs Israélites de France; EIF), France, see French Jewish Scouts

 

 

Jewish Second Detachment, see Second FTP-MOI-Detachment, France

 

 

Jewish Self Help Association (Jüdische Soziale Selbsthilfe; JSS; Jüdische Unterstützungsstelle)

 

 

Jewish Self Help Society (Zydowska Samopomoc Spoleczna; ZSS; Jüdische Unterstützingsstelle), main office, Krakow, Poland, Lvov Ghetto, Poland, established 1942

Yitzhak (Isaac) Gitterman*, JDC representative

 

 

Jewish Social Assistance Mission, France (Oeuvre d’Assistance Social Israelite)

 

 

Jewish Social Help (Jüdische Soziale Hilfe; JSH-YISA), established September 1939, later changed name to ZTOS and Jüdisches Hilfs-Komitet; supported by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

 

 

Jewish Social Institute of Czechoslovakian Jewry

 

 

Jewish Social Self-Help (Jüdische Social Selbsthelf; JSS); supported by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC)

 

 

Jewish Social Service Association, USA, affiliated with Greater New York Coordinating Committee, established 1934

 

 

Jewish Societies of France

 

 

Jewish Society for Social Help (Zydowskie Towarzystwo Opieki Spolecznej; ZETOS)

Emanuel Ringelblum, chair

Sachne Sagan (LPZ)

Maurycy Orczeck (Bund)

Abraham Gepner

 

 

Jewish Solidarity (Solidarité Juive; SJ), Belgium, established late 1930s, operated until liberation in 1945, underground 1940-1945

 

 

Jewish Transport and Colonization Company, Slolvakia, established 1939

 

 

Jewish Union for Resistance and Mutual Aid (Union des Juifes pour la Resistance et l’Entr’aid; UJRE), France, established 1944

 

 

Jewish War Veterans, USA

 

 

Jewish Welfare Bureau (Jüdishe Unterstützungstelle), Poland

 

 

Jewish Welfare Committee of Paris (Comité de Bienfaisance Israelites de Paris), France, established 1855

 

 

Jewish Welfare Society, EZRA, Belgium

 

 

Jewish Work Collective (Zsidó Munkaközösség), Budapest, Hungary, established August 1939; after 1941, was Jewish Public Opinion Research Station (Zsidó Közvélemény Kutató-Állomas)

 

 

Jewish Youth Help (Jüdische Jugendhilfe), Germany, established 1933

Recha Frier, founder

 

 

Joint Boycott Council (JBC), established 1936, formed as part of the Jewish Labor Committee’s Boycott Committee and American Jewish Congress Joint Boycott Council

Dr. Joseph Tennenbaum, leader, co-chairman, 1933-1935

B. Charney Vladek, co-chairman

 

 

Joint British Committee ORT-OSE, London, Great Britain

 

 

“Joint” – see American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

 

 

Joint Committee for European Jewish Affairs, umbrella organization for the following:  Zionist American Jewish Congress, Jewish Labor Committee, American Jewish Committee, Orthodox Agudath Israel, Union of Orthodox Rabbis Va’ad Hatsala

 

 

Joint Committee of Jews from Czechoslovakia in England, established October 1939; umbrella organization for the following organizations: Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews, the HICEM Group at the Czech Refugee Trust Fund, the Maccabi Aid Committee, and Self Aid Association of Jews from Bohemia-Moravia and Slovakia in England

   

 

Joint Emergency Committee for European Jewish Affairs, composed of Agudat Israel, American Emergency Committee for Zionist Affairs, American Jewish Congress, American Jurist Committee, B’nai B’rith, Jewish Labor Committee, Synagogue Council of America, Union of Orthodox Rabbis of America

 

 

Joint Foreign Committee (JFC), UK, established 1933; part of Anglo Jewish Association and Board of Deputies

 

 

Joint Orthodox Jewish Refugee Committee, London, Great Britain

 

 

Joint Social Commission, Prague, Czechoslovakia. The Joint Social Commission consisted of sixteen organizations doing relief work for Jewish refugees in Prague and Czechoslovakia.  It also helped Jews emigrate from Bohemia-Moravia.

 

 

Joodsch Hulp-Comite, Curacao

Rabbi I. J. Cardozo, head

 

 

Jüdische Frauenbund (JFB), see League of Jewish Women

 

 

Jüdische Gemeinde, Berlin, Germany

 

 

Jüdische Hemispeisung, Berlin, Germany (formerly the Baerwald Kitchens)

Mrs. Emil Baerwald

 

 

Jüdische Jugendhilf, see Jewish Youth Help

 

 

Jüdische Kulturbund, see Jewish Cultural League, Germany

 

 

Jüdische Unterstützungstelle (JUS), Poland, successor to Jüdische Sozial Selbsthilf (JSS)

Dr. Michael Weichert, director

 

 

Jüdische Volkpartei (JVP), see Jewish People’s Party, Austria

 

 

Jüdische Waisenhaus, Baden bei Wien

 

 

Judiska Foersmlingen, Helsingfors, Finland, established 1938

 

 

Junta de Ayuda Judia a las Victimes de la Guerra, Buenos Aires, Argentina

 

 

Kaganovich Jewish Partisan Unit, Belorussia

Shlomo Mushin, founder

David Pinczov, commander

Baruch Zimmer

 

 

Kamen-Koshirsk Ghetto Underground, 300 Jews escaped ghetto, 120 in organized groups, some reached partisan groups

Josef Segal, partisan emissary

 

 

Kampfgruppe Auschwitz, see Auschwitz Fighting Group

 

 

Hirsch Kaplinski Company / Battalion (partisans), 120 men, Jews from Diatlovo (Zhetl) area set up camp in Kopyl area south of Minsk (Lipiczany Forest, Belorussia)

Hirsch “Zwi” Kaplinski* (1910-1942), leader

 

 

Karen Hayesod, France

Nahum Herman

 

 

Kaufman Group, Berlin, Germany, see also Chug Chaluzi (Pioneer Circle), established 1942, members: 50

Franz Kaufman* (1886-1944)

Ernst Hallermann (b. 1911), Chug Chaluzi

Edith Wolf (Ewo; b. 1940), Chug Chaluzi

 

 

Kazian Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Lieb Voliak, leader, Hechalutz

 

 

Kehillah Refugee Relief Committee, Vilna, Lithuania

 

 

Kindertransport (G. Children’s Transport), see Movement for the Care of Children from Germany, Great Britain, 1938-1939

Gertrude Wijsmuller

Mrs. Recha Freier (1892-1984), Youth Aliya

 

 

Kleck (Kletsk) Ghetto Underground, Minsk Oblast (District), Belorussia, uprising July 21, 1942, occupied by Germans June 25, 1941, first action October 26, 1941, ghetto burned July 22, 1942

Yikzak Finkel

Avram Pozharik

Mejerowicz

 

 

Kobryn Ghetto Underground, 500 Jews escaped during action of October 14, 1942

Dr. Yaakov Angelowiez

Mottel Breznick

Dr. Chaim Goldberg, head of Hashomer Hatzair

Rachel Goldin

Abrasha Herman

Gershon Tennenbaum

Hershl Zkubacky

 

 

Kobylnik Ghetto Underground, had organized escape from ghetto

M. Chadash

 

 

Koldichevo (Koldyczevo) Concentration Camp, Belorussia (escape March 17, 1944)

Dr. Zelik Levinbok, physician

Shlomo Kushnir, leader underground

 

 

Koldichevo (Koldyczevo) Ghetto Underground

 

 

Koldichevo (Koldyczevo) Work Camp – Farm, 75 Jewish prisoners escaped to forest, many joined partisan units

Shlomo Kushnir*, commander, escape operation

Romek

Boria Neuffeld

Dr. Levinbuk, smuggled medicine to forest

 

 

Komitet far di Promotsye oif Yidishe Halutsishe Kolonizastye in Madagaskar un Kenya, see Committee for the Promotion of Jewish Pioneering and Colonization in Madagascar and Kenya, Poland

 

 

Komitety Domowe, see House Committees, Warsaw, Poland

 

 

Komarov Fighting Brigade (made up of Jews from Lenin, Pogost-Zagorodski and Lachva)

 

 

Komor Committee, Shanghai, China, see International Committee for the Relief of Refugees (IC)

 

 

Koordinatzie-Komitet (KK; Coordinating Committee), Koordinirungs-Komisie fun di Iddishe Helf und Sozial-Gesellshaftn, Poland, 1939

Lieb Neustadt, chairman

Emmanuel Ringelblum, secretary

 

 

Kopaliny Training Farm, Krackow, Poland, see also Krackow Ghetto Partisans

Shimshon Draeger, head

Aharon Liebeskind (Dolek)* (1912-1942)

 

 

Korelicz Ghetto Underground

David Lifszyc (Hashomer Hatzair), escaped ghetto, joined partisans

 

 

Kosov-Polesky Ghetto Escape, partisan attack and escape August 3, 1942, 5 partisans killed

S. Ragutner

Danny Berkowicz*, partisan

Moshe Tuchman

 

 

Kovalov Parachutist Unit, Lipiczansk Forest, see also Diatlovo (Zhetl) Ghetto Underground

 

 

Kovno (Kaunas) Ghetto Underground

The following women rescued Jewish children from the Kovno Ghetto and hid them in the countryside.  Most of these women were killed:

Roni Rosenthal*, leader

Pessya Karnovsky

Rachele Katz

Sonia Lifshitz-Goldsmith

Tzivia Kapit

Malka Pogatzki-Smolli

Shulamit Lerman (age 17)

Leah Kozel

Malka Pogatzki Smolli

Liuba Schwartz

Dr. Pessya Kissin

 

 

Kovno (Kaunas) Jewish Council of Elders, Lithuania, see also General Jewish Fighting Organization (JFO), Kovno, Lithuania

Elhanon Elkes+* (1879-1944), chairman

Lejb Garfunkel+, vice chairman, Council Labor Department

Hirsz Lewin, Council Liaison

 

 

Kovpak Partisan Unit

 

 

Koziany Forest Partisans, see also “Spartak” (Spartacus) Brigade

Vidz

Lieb Voliak+

Yaakov Natkowicz*

Bruce Cimmer*

Lifszyc

 

 

Koziany Ghetto Underground

Lieb Voliak+, partisan emissary

Lifszcy, partisan emissary

Yaakov Natkowitz*, Spartak Brigade

 

 

Krakow Ghetto Fighters, Krakow, Poland

Hershek Bauminger* (Zvi or “Bazyli”; 1919-1943), CDR Iska (Spark) Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB), Hashomer Hatsair

Michael Borowitz, Poale Zion, Janow KZ Underground, CDR Partisans Miechov District

Gusta Davidson-Drenger+* (1917-1943), Akiva

Shimon (Marek) Drenger+* (1916-1943), partisan commander

Israelewitz* (first name unknown), Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Salo (Samuel) Kanal+* (d. 1943), Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Raize Klinberg+*, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Abraham Lieb (Laban) Liebowitz+* (1917-1943), commander Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB), Dror Underground

Aaron (Dolek) Libenskind* (1912-1942), co-commander Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Rivka (Eva)Libenskind-Kuper+, wife of Dolek Libenskind, Akiva Youth, Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB)

Gola (Lydia) Mire+* (d. 1943), member PPR

Hirsh Bauminger, Guadia Lodova

Poldek Yehuda Wasserman

 

 

Krasna Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Shabtai Arluk, Jewish Council chairman

Yitzhak Kaplan

Moshe Kaplan

Chanan Rogovin, had organized escape

 

 

Kremenets Ghetto Partisan Fighters, uprising September 9, 1942

 

 

Krinki Jewish Partisan Group

 

 

Kulturbund deutscher Juden, see Cultural Organization of German Jews

 

 

Kultursgemeinde, Vienna, see Jewish Cultural Center, Vienna

 

 

Kultursgemeinde, Czechoslovakia, see Supreme Council of Jewish Congregations

 

 

Kurzeniec Ghetto Underground, Belorussia, hundreds of Jews escaped on September 9, 1942, during action, many served in partisan units

Nachum Alperovicz (Alperovitz), Hashomer Hatzair

Rivka Alperovicz (Alperovitz)

Shimon Cirulnik, Hashomer Hatzair

Yitzhak Einbinder

Berta Dimenstein

Noah Dinerstein

Zalman Uri Gurvicz, Hashomer Hatzair

Joseph Norman

Benjamin Shulman

Koppel Spector, Hashomer Hatzair

Ida Gelberstein

 

 

Labor Zionist Organization of America (LZO), see also American Zionist Emergency Council, established 1905

 

 

Lacado Group, France

 

 

Lachowicz Ghetto Underground

Josef Pecker

Mottel Chwediyk

Michael Bussel

 

 

Lachwa (Lachva) Ghetto Jewish Council, Pinsk Area

Berl (Dov) Lopatyn*, Council chairman, Zionist leader

Israel Dubski (Drabsky), Council member, Revisionist

Dov Lopaatin, chairman

Yosef Guzewicz, General Zionists

Manis Brodes, General Zionists

Elahu Shechtman, General Zionists

Yaakov Master, Revisionist

Nachum Milman

Israel Drabsky*, Revisionst

Asher Ben Zalman Chefetz

Rabbi Abraham Chaim Zalman, Council Advisor

Rabbi Lizerke, Council Advisor

 

 

Lachwa (Lachva) Ghetto Jewish Police

Yitzhak Lichtenberg, commander

Asher Chefetz

Moshe Koplinsky

Aharon Oszman

 

 

Lachwa (Lachva) Ghetto Underground Resistance, Pinsk Area, Brest Oblast (District), Belorussia, ghetto started January 1942

Yitzhak Rechstein* (Itzhak Rochczyn), Betar, commander

Hajfec

Aharon Oszman (Oshman), Hashomer Haleumi (ghetto police)

David Feinberg, Hashomer Hatzair, deputy commander

Asher Chefetz, Betar

Moshe Leib Chefetz*, Betar

Moshe Kopanicky

Yehuda Guzewicz

Shimon Chefetz

Yitzhak Slucky

Berl Gittelman

Mendelovicz

Yitzhak Lichtenberg

Tuvia Migdalovicz*

 

 

Lar de Crianca Israelita, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Children’s Home), opened 1939

   

 

Large Deposit (Grosser Einsatz), Berlin, Germany, see also Community for Peace and Construction

Hans Winkler (1906-1987)

Werner Scharf* (1912-1945)

Günther Samuel* (1903-1944)

 

 

League of Jewish War Veterans, Vienna

 

 

League of Jewish Women (Jüdischer Frauenbund; JFB), established 1904, abolished 1938, journal: Blätter des JFB

Käthe Rosenheim (1882-1980), Children’s Emigration Department, Reichsvertretung

Ottilie Schönewald (1883-1961), head

Hannah Karminsky* (1897-1942), executive secretary

 

 

LEHI, see Stern Group

 

 

Lehranstalt für die Wissenschaft des Judentums, Berlin

 

 

Lenin Ghetto Underground

Yehuda Ciklik, partisan

Chaya Gurvicz

 

 

Lenin Jewish Council (near Pinsk)

Jacob Lazebnik

 

 

Leninsky Komsomal Battalion, Lithuania

 

 

L’Entraide Temporaire (Mutual Aid), France

Denise Milhaud, founder

 

 

Les Oeuvres de la Guerre, France, 1941

 

 

Baruch Levin Group, Lida Ghetto, see also Lida Ghetto Fighting Underground

Baruch Levin, partisan leader

 

 

Lida Ghetto Fighting Underground, Novogrudok District, Western Belorussia, Partisan Emissaries attempted escape on September 17, 1943

Kalman Lichtman+*, chairman

Lazar Stolitsky, head Jewish Ghetto Police

Baruch Levin Group

 

 

Lida Ghetto Jewish Council, Novogrudok District, Western Belorussia, SSR

Baruch Levin Group, Baruch Levin

Lazar Stolitsky, head Jewish Ghetto Police

 

 

Ligue Internationale Contra l’Antisemitisme (LICA), see International League Against Anti-Semitism, France, established 1927

 

 

Limited Company, see Anonymous Group (Naamloze Vennootschap; NV Group)

 

 

Lohamei Herut Israel (LEHI), see Stern Group

 

 

Loodsdrecht Training Farm, Netherlands (Halutz, Zionist Pioneer)

Joop Westerweel+* (1899-1944), non-Jew

Joachim (“Schuschu”) Simon* (1919-1943)

 

 

Lord Baldwin Fund, Great Britain

 

 

Lubieszow Ghetto Underground

 

 

Lvov Jewish Council

Dr. Joseph Parnes+*, chairman

 

 

Maccabi Aid Committee, Great Britain

 

 

Maccabi he-Tsa’ir, Austria

Dr. Daniel Adolf “Dolfi” Brunner

 

 

Maccabi World Union, London, Great Britain, 1939-1940

 

 

Maccabi Zionist Movement, Paris, France

 

 

Maccabi Zionist Movement, Vienna, Austria

Bernard Storfer, Klepner, Spielman

 

 

Magyar Izraelita Nök Országós Szövet (MINOS; National Association of Hungarian Jewish Women)

 

 

Magyar Izraeliták Pártfogo Irodája

Dr. Sandor (Alexander) Eppler, director

 

 

Main d’Oeuvre Immigré (MOI), France, see Immigrant Workers Organization

 

 

Main Forte (MF; Strong Hand), part of Armée Juive (AJ; Jewish Army), France, 1940-1944

David Knout, founder

Ariane Scriabine-Knout (“Sarah”)

Avraham Polonski (“Pol”), founder

Eugenie Polonski (“Genia”)

 

 

Main Office for the Shelter – DCA, France

Abbé (Father) Alexander Glassberg

Nina Gourfinkel

Dr. Joseph Weill

 

 

Main Welfare Council (Naczelna Rada Opiekuncza; NRO), Poland; Dr. Michael Weichert, director

   

 

Makkabi, La Paz, Bolivia

 

 

Mapai, see Mifleget Poale Eretz Israel (Workers Party of the Land of Israel)

 

 

Marcinkance Ghetto Jewish Council, near Grodno

Aron Kobrowski, chairman

 

 

Marseille Committee, Marseille, France

 

 

Masaryk-Gaster Fund, London, Great Britain, affiliated with the FCJ

 

 

Maurice Cachoud Group, Southern France; Maurice Cachoud-Loebenberg, founder, see Cachoud Group

 

 

Meiczet Ghetto Underground

Noah Mordokovsky

Yaakov Margolin

Chaim Szelubsky

M. Borecky, Hashomer Hatzair, partisan

Zimmel Stolowick, organized partisans from Meiczet

 

 

Memorial Relief Committee, Marseilles, France

 

 

Menachem Linder IKOP

Erich Österreicher

Egon Redlich

Freddy Hirsch+*

Jenda Kaufman

Gert Körbel

Seppl Lichtenstein*

Moshe Orechwski

 

 

Menorah Association, Inc., USA, established 1913, reorganized in 1929

Henry Hurwitz, founder

 

 

Merkaz Lealiyah (Immigration Center), Paris, founded by New Zionist Organization (NZO)

 

 

Miadziol Ghetto Underground, two escapes, first escape 140 Jews, second escape 86 Jews

Yak’akov Sigalczyk, partisan, led escape

 

 

Michaliczky Ghetto Underground

 

 

Mifleget Poale Eretz Israel, “Mapai” (Workers Party of the Land of Israel), Socialist Zionist Political Party, Palestine, established 1930

David Ben Gurion, chairman (1930-1948)

 

 

Mikhalovski Jewish Partisan Unit, Soviet Union

 

 

Military Branch of the Immigrant Resistance (FTP-MOI), second detachment

 

 

Minsk Ghetto Jewish Council, Belorussia

Eliyahu (Ilya-Elye) Myskin+*, first chairman

Moshe Jaffe*, chairman

Hersch Ruditzer, economic department, labor exchange

Dulski, housing

Goldin, shops

Srebrianski+*, commandant, Jewish Ghetto police

Blumenstok*, deputy commandant, Jewish Ghetto police

Mira Strogin, labor department

Sara Levin, labor department

Eliyahu Myskin, partisan leader, liaison

 

 

Minsk Ghetto Police, Belorussia

Srebrianski+*, police commante

Blumenstok*

 

 

Minsk Ghetto Underground, Belorussia, Jewish partisan groups from Minsk Ghetto, Belorussia

No 406 – Unit - Zaslavl

Kutuzov Detachment (The Second Minsk Brigade), between Minsk and Slutsk

Budenny (Budyonny) Unit - Zaslavl

Dzerzhinski Unit – Kvidanov Partisans

Frunze Detachment

Markevich Group

Narodny Mstitel “People’s Avenger” Brigade

No 106 (Zorin) Family Unit – Naliboki Forest

Parkhomenko Units (Chadayev Brigade), M. Pruslin, leader

Sergei Lazo Unit – Kvidanov, M. Geblev, leader+

Individuals:

Hirsch Smolar (Smoliar), leader

Sholem (Shimon) Zorin, leader “Zorin Brigade” and family camp

Joshua Genichesk, leader

Rosa Altman, head Labor Exchange

Tzypa Botvinik-Lupian

Boris Chaimovich, leader Nechama Ruditzer’s partisan group

Misha (Mikhail) Chipin, operated underground press

Boris Dolsky, Minsk Jewish Council, head Labor Exchange

Nahum Feldman*, leader underground

Aaron Gertsovich Fitterson, Ghetto Jewish Police

Sima Fitterson (Perston; Vodinskaya), child partisan liaison

Semyon Ganzenko, partisan leader

Misha (Mikhail) Gebelev*, leader ghetto underground

Brona Goffman, ghetto underground newspaper

Sara Goland, organized escapes

Ya’akov Grinstein

Bella Grinstein

Leah (Liza) Zalmanovna Gutkovich, arranged escape

Ivan Kabushkin (“Zhan”), leader underground

Mikhail Mikhailovich Kantorvich, organized underground group

Fanya Kaplan

Raissa Grigorievna Khasenyevich

David Kissel, ghetto underground leader

Esfir Kissel, courier

Frieda Kissel, courier

Tanya Knigovy, courier

Frieda Knigovy, courier

Isai Kazinietz (“Slavek,” “Pobedit”), first leader underground

Ivan Kovalyov+, second leader, Minsk underground

Dr. Leib Kulik, Director, Jewish Hospital

Sonya Kurlandskaya, arranged escapes

Sarah Levina, leader underground

Tatiana (Tanya) Lifshitz (Boyko), courier

Reuven Liond

Rosa Efroimova Lipskaya, underground leader

Nina Liss*

Lena (Elena, Yenta) Maizles, underground leader

Alexander Markevich, leader second underground

Hinda Nechamchit (Tassman), child liaison/courier, aided escape

Nikolai Mikhailovich+ (see Shteingart), member Military Council partisan leader

Motye (Meir, Matvei) Mendelevich Pruslin, leader ghetto underground

Chasya Mendeleevna Pruslina, leader ghetto underground

Boris Pupko, ghetto underground newspapers

Emma Radova+*, ghetto liaison

Abram Ilich Rosovsky, partisan

Abram Rubenchik, partisan

Yocheved Rubenchik (Iberman), partisan, led rescuers from ghetto

Mira Matveena Ruderman, underground courier

Misha (Mikhail) Ruditzer, courier, liaison

Nechama (Nadya) Ruditzer, organized underground group

Fedya (Fyodor) Shedletzky, courier, liaison

Ilse Stein, organized escape

Mikhail Treister, led Jews out of ghetto

Ekaterina Israelovna Tzirlina, smuggled weapons

David Gertik (Zhenka), liaison, courier

Lyubov (Lucia) Yefimova Zuckerman, Friendship Circle

Rosa Yefimovna Zuckerman (Zelenko), Friendship Circle

Halina Mazanik

 

 

Miory Ghetto Underground

 

 

Mir Ghetto Fighting Underground, Poland, established November 9, 1941, uprising August 9, 1942, on August 8, 1942, 300 Jews escaped to the forest, some went to Bielsky Partisans and Family Camp

Oswald Rufeisen+

Shalom Charchas, escape leader

Berl Reznik

Hirsch Piernikow, Bund

 

 

Misiura Partisan Unit, members: 300, 80% Jews, see also Voroshilov Partisan Unit (Southern Polesie)

Misiura, leader (Communist, non-Jew)

 

 

Mizrachi Organization of America, New York, NY, USA, established 1911; organizations: 312; members: 27,000; publications: The Jewish Outlook; Der Mizrachi Weg

Leon Gellman, president

Max Kirshblum, executive secretary

 

 

Mizrachi Women’s Organization of America, New York, NY, USA, established 1925; chapters: 149; members: 35,000; publications: Mizrachi Women’s New; President’s Letter

Mrs. Samuel Goldstein, president

Mrs. Ruth Rubin, executive secretary

 

 

Molczadz Ghetto Jewish Council, Poland

Josef Korn, member

 

 

Montefiore Society, established 1880s, Holland

 

 

Mosaika Församlingen, Stockholm, Sweden

 

 

Mossad le Aliyah Bet (Organization for Illegal Immigration), Institute of “B” Immigration, see Jewish Agency for Palestine; affiliated with Af-Al-Pi Transport (see “Despite Everything”), active 1934 to 1948, composed of Haganah (Underground Jewish Army) and Irgun organizations

Vladimir Jabotinsky (NZO), founder

Moshe Auerbuch-Agami, Vienna, leader

Ehud Avriel, Vienna, leader

Pino Ginzburg, Berlin, leader

Joseph Bardal, Romania, leader

Ruth Kluger-Aliav, Romania, leader

Shaul Meirov (Avigur), Hagana

Berthold Storfer, Vienna

Dr. Baruch Confino, Bulgaria

Yuhuda Braginsky, Berlin

 

 

Mossad le Aliyah Gimmel

 

 

Mount San Mariono Group, Italy

Haim Volterra, leader

 

 

Mouvement de Jeunesse Sioniste (MJS), see Zionist Youth Movement, France

 

 

Mouvement National Contre de Recisme (MNCR), see National Movement Against Racism, France

 

 

Movement for the Care of Children from Germany, Kindertransport, London, Great Britain, 1938-1939, incorporated into Refugee Children’s Movement in March 1939

 

 

Mutual Enterprisees Organization, Australia

 

 

Naliboki Forest Partisans

Eliahu Kobensky

 

 

National Association of Hungarian Jewish Women (Magyar Izraelita Nök Országós Szövetsege; MINOS [MINOSZ]), worked with WIZO

 

 

National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA), Community Chests and Councils (CCC), USA

 

 

National Committee for the Defense of the Jews (Comité National de Défense des Juifs (CNDJ), part of National Front of Belgian Independence (FI), offices in Brussels, Liège

Emile Allard (non-Jew)

Yvonne Nevejean (non-Jew)

Belgian National Committee for the Child (ONE)

 

 

National Committee of Jewish Youth Leagues, Germany

Ludwig Teitz

Georg Lubinski

 

 

National Committee on Refugee Jewish Ministers, established 1938, served as a apecial advising committee to the National Refugee Service (NPS)

 

 

National Coordinating Committee for Aid to Refugees and Emigrants Coming from Germany (NCC), USA, established 1933 (successor organization was National Refugee Service), organized and funded in part by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC)

Dr. Livingston Farrand, chairman

Joseph B. Chamberlain, chairman, founder

Wm. Rosenwald, vice chairman (1936-1939)

Dr. Stephan Duggan, secretary

Cecilia Razovsky, secretary and executive director

Fred M. Stein, treasurer

Paul Felix Warburg, treasurer (JDC)

The NCC worked and cooperated with the following organizations:

American Committee for Christian-German Refugees

American Friends Service Committee

American Jewish Committee

American Jewish Congress

B’nai B’rith

Committee for Catholic Refugees from Germany

Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds

Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Physicians

Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars

Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America

German-Jewish Children’s Aid

HIAS

HICEM

Intercollegiate Council for Refugee Students

International Migration Service

International Student Service

Jewish Agricultural Society of America

Joint Distribution Committee

Musicians’ Emergency Fund

National Board of the YWCA

National Council of Jewish Women

Zionist Organization of America

 

 

National Council of Jewish Communities in the Far East

 

 

National Council of Jewish Women (NCJW), New York, NY, USA, established 1893; members: 60,000; publication: The Council Woman

Mrs. Maurice L. Goldman, president

Fanny Brin, president 1932-1938

Flora R. Rothenberg, executive director

Cecilia Razovsky, secretary, Department of Immigrant Aid, associate director, 1932

Subgroups

Committee on German Jewish Refugee Problems, established 1935

Committee on Service to Foreign Born (SFB)

 

 

National Farm School, see Deleware Valley College of Science and Agriculture

 

 

National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers, Inc., established 1911

 

 

National Hungarian Jewish Aid Campaign (Orszagos Magyar Zsido Segitö Arció; OMZSA). The National Hungarian Jewish Aid Campaign was a rescue and relief organization headquartered in Budapest.  It also provided information regarding the murder of Jews in Hungary and Europe.

Dr. Nison Kahane, leader

 

 

National Jewish Welfare Board, Inc. (JWB), New York, NY, established 1917, Division/Committee for Social and Cultural Adjustment of Jewish Refugees, established 1938

Samuel C. Kohs, director, 1942-1947

 

 

National Labor Committee for Palestine, New York, NY, USA, established 1923; affiliated organizations: 2,000; contributors: 150,000; publications: Jewish Frontier; Histadrut Bulletin

Joseph Schlossberg, national chairman

Morris Feinstone, chair administrative committee

Isaac Hamlin, national secretary

Max Zaritsky, treasurer

Abraham Miller, associate treasurer

Joseph Breslau, co-chairman

Sara Feder, co-chairman

Alexander Kahn, co-chairman

Saul Metz, co-chairman

Isador Nagler, co-chairman

David Pinski, co-chairman

Alex Rose, co-chairman

Louis Segal, co-chairman

David Werthheim, co-chairman

 

 

National Military Organization (Irgun Zvai Leumi), founded by Haganah and Zionist Revisionist Movement in 1931; founded Af-Al-Pi (“Despite Everything”)

 

 

National Movement Against Racism (Mouvement National Contre le Racisme; MNCR), France

Leon Alex Chertok, leader

Suzanna Spaatz, leader

Thérèse Pierre, leader, Protestant pastor

 

 

National Office of Hungarian Israelites (MOIO)

Samu Stern, president, Pest Israelite Synagogue

Baroness Edit Weiss

 

 

Naczelna Rada Opiekuncza (NRO), see Main Welfare Council

 

 

National Refugee Service, Inc. (NRS), New York, NY, USA, established 1939 (formerly National Coordinating Committee for Aid to Refugees and Emigrants Coming from Germany), organized and funded in part by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC); publication: Community Bulletin

William Rosenwald, Rosenwald Family Association, president, vice chairman (1936-1939)

Cecilia Razovsky, secretary and executive director

William Habor, executive director

Albert Abrahamson, executive director

Dr. Livingston Farrand, chairman

Joseph B. Chamberlain, chairman

Dr. Stephan Duggan, secretary

Fred M. Stein, treasurer

Paul Felix Warburg, treasurer (JDC)

Richard P. Limburg, treasurer

Joseph E. Beck, executive director

David H. Sulzberger, chairman of the executive committee

Alfred I. Esberg, vice president

William K. Frank, vice president

Morris Wolf, vice president

 

 

National Representation of German Jews (Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden; RDJ), see National Representative Council of German Jews

 

 

National Representation of Jews in Germany (Reichsvertretuing der Juden in Deutschland; RJD), see National Representative Council of German Jews

 

 

National Representative Council of German Jews (Reichsvertretung de Deutschen Juden; RDJ), established 1933, name changed to National Representative Council of the Jews in Germany (Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland; RJD) in 1935, became National Union of Jews in Germany (Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland; RdJD) in 1939

Otto Hirsch*, chairman

George S. Hirschland, chairman

Rabbi Leo Baeck, co-chairman

Ernst Herzfeld, deputy chairman

Rabbi Hugo Hahn

Siegfried Moses (until 1936)

Cora Berliner* (1890-1942), Centralverein, Zentralausschuss, vice president, Jüdischer Frauenbund

Fredrich Brodnitz (1899-1995), CV, Zentralausschuss

 

 

National Rescue Organization (Secours National), France

 

 

National Union of Jews in Germany, see Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD)

 

 

Nekamah (Revenge) Jewish Partisan Unit (200 fighters), Vilna Ghetto, Rudniki Forest, Lithuania

Z. Ragauskas Butenas (Zerakhskas-Butenas)

Joseph Glassman+* (1908-1943), deputy commander, PPA

Rashel Markowitz* (1921-1943), Hashomer Hatzair, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Raisel Korchak, Hashomer Hatzair, PPA Vilna Ghetto

Miklishansky*

Shalkman*

 

 

Neswiesz (Nesvizh) Ghetto Fighters, Belorussia, SSR, uprising July 21, 1942

Moshe Damesek, ghetto partisan organizer, CDR Partisan Group, Ivienitz Forest

Lolik Aboilevitz, leader Hashomer Hatzair

Cila (Zila) Gilerevicz (Gilerovitz), leader Hashomer Hatzair

Sholom Cholawski, leader Hashomer Hatzair

Rachael Kagen

Yeremiel Szklar*, Ghetto Jewish Council (Gordonia)

Jacob Klaczko*, Ghetto Jewish Council

Hedva Lachewicki (Lachowiczky), secretary, Ghetto Council, leader Hashomer Hatzair

Rechtman, Communist Party, refugee

Cila Gilerovits, leader Hashomer Hatzair

Siomka Farfel, leader Hashomer Hatzair

Borenstein (left Poali Zion), leader

Natan Messer (Mosser), Hashomer Hatzair

Buzin, Communist Party, refugee

Moshe Damesek, commander

Berl Alperoviez, commander

Leah Duckar, weapons

Rachel Kagan, weapons

Eliahu Polaczek, explosives

Moshe Lachowicky

David Farfel

Pordes

Shmuel Nissboim

Jokow, chemist

Goldberg, chemist

Israel Schusterman

Yosef Langman

Aharon Gach

Klaczko

 

 

Neswiesz (Nesvizh) Ghetto Jewish Council, Baranovichi Oblast (District), Belorussia

Magalif, chairman, Jewish Council

Yeremiel Szklar*, member (Gordonia)

Jacob Klaczko*, member

Chedva Lachewicki (Lachowiczka), secretary

 

 

Netherlands-Jewish Society, Inc., New York, NY, USA, established 1940; members: 300

David Abraham Cordozo, president

Alexander Simon Boekman, secretary

Maurits Ernst Edershein, secretary

Jacob Salomon Hartog, vice president

Mrs. R. de Jong-von Kleef, treasurer

 

 

New York Foundation, New York, NY, USA, established 1909. The New York Foundation helped support the following rescue and relief agencies:  National Coordinating Committee, National Refugee Service, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Medical Scientists, American Friends Service Committee, International Migration Service (Traveler’s Aid-International Social Service of America), American Christian Committee for Refugees.

Felix M. Warburg, president 1930-1937

 

 

New Zionist Organization (NZO); founded Merkaz Lealiyah (Immigration Center) in Paris

Prague, Czechoslovakia – Harous Borjas, Eliyahu Glazer, Oscar Rabinowitz

Greece – Avraham Stavsky

Romania – Theodore Dankner, Michael Goren (Gorenstein)

Yosef Katznelson

Shlomo Yaakobi

Vienna

 

 

New Zionist Organization of America, New York, NY, USA, established 1926; publication: Zion News

Morris J. Mendelsohn, president

Joseph Beder, vice president

B. Netanyahu, executive director

D. Mogilensky, secretary

Morris Rose, chairman, national council

 

 

Nimes Committee, Nimes Coordination Committee (Comité des Camps Nimes), France, 1940-1945

Dr. Donald Lowrie (USA), head, also YMCA

Aid Operation for Children (OSE; French)

Dr. Olmer

Julien Samuel (Jewish)

Dr. Julien Weil (Jewish)

Dr. Wolf

American Friends of Czechoslovakia, USA

American Friends Service Committee (AFSC; Quakers), USA

Clarence E. Pickett, (USA), executive director

Rufus Jones, (USA), chairman

Philip Conrad, (USA)

Henry Harvey, (USA)

Howard Kershner, (USA), Southern France

Princess Lieven, Southern France

Roswell M. McClelland, (USA), Southern France

Majorie McClelland, (USA), Southern France

Lindsley Nobel, (USA), Southern France

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), USA

Herbert Katski, USA

Joseph Swartz, USA

Morris Troper, USA

Joseph C. Heyman, USA

Jules Jefronkin (Jewish)

Maurice Brenner (UGIF-South) (Jewish)

Joseph Croustillon

Shlomo Steinhorn (Jewish)

American Red Cross (ARC), USA

Richard Allen (USA)

Amitié Chrétienne (Christian Friendship), Lyons, France

Cardinal Gerlier

Father Alexander Glassberg, Direction de Centres d’Accueil (DCA)

Belgian Office

Catholic Centre d’Accueil

Central Jewish Committee of Relief Organizations

Committee for Action on Behalf of Refugees (CIMADE; Comité Intermouvement après des Evacuees)

Medeline Barot

Pastor Marc Boegner (France)

Czech Aid (Ryan, 1996, p. 148)

Donald Lowrie (YMCA)

Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC), USA

Varian Fry (USA)

European Student Relief

French Committee in Aid of Jewish Refugees (ORT)

French Jewish Scouts (EIF)

French Protestant Federation

French Red Cross

French Student Christian Association

Hebrew Immigrant Aid and Sheltering Society (HIAS-HICEM), USA

Edouard Oungre (Jewish)

International Migration Office

Mennonite Central Committee, USA

Nîmes Committee, Health Committee

Pastor Toureille, president of the Coordination Committee

Mr. DuBois, Secours Suisse

Mrs. DuBois, Secours Suisse

Dr. René Zimmer, (Jewish), head doctor, Unitarian Service Committee (USC)

Mr. Vaucher, Institute of Health Research

Dr. Julien Weill, (Jewish) OSE

Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants (OSE)

Organization for Reconstruction through Labor (ORT)

Personal Representative of Cardinal Gerlier

Polish Red Cross

RELICO

Swiss Aid for Children (Secours Suisse)

Mr. and Mrs. DuBois

Unitarian Service Committee (USC), USA

Reverend Howard Lee Brooks, USA

Robert C. Dexter, USA

Elizabeth Dexter, USA

Noel Field, USA

Herta Field, USA

Dr. Charles Joy, USA

Martha Sharpe, USA

Waitstill Sharpe, USA

Dr. René Zimmer, Health Committee (Jewish)

World Service of the Young Men’s/Women’s Christian Association (YMCA/YWCA), Marseilles office, headquarters USA; see also Czech Aid, Marseilles

Dr. Donald Lowrie (USA), head, Nimes Committee, Czech Aid

Helen Lowrie, Nimes Committee

French YMCA/YWCA

Individuals:

Dr. Donald Lowrie (USA), head of the YMCA, head of Czech Aid, head of the Nîmes Committee

Richard Allen (USA), American Red Cross

Daniel Bendite (France), ERC

Pastor Marc Boegner (France; Comité Intermouvement après des Evacuees)

Auguste Bohny, Le Secours Suisse

Friedel Bohony-Reiter, Le Secours Suisse

Victoria Cordier, Le Secours Suisse

Reverend Howard Brooks (USA), USC

Madam Chavoutier

Robert C. Dexter (USA), USC

Elizabeth Dexter (USA), USC

Maurice Ellen Dubois, Secours Suisse

Dubois, Secours Suisse

Noel Field (USA), USC

Herta Field (USA), USC

Varian Fry (USA), ERC

Abbe Alexander Glassberg (France; Lyons Catholic Archdiocese)

Dr. Ilse Hamburger

Dr. Charles Joy (USA), USC

Mrs. Kirbach

Mademoiselle Renee Lang (France)

Princess Lieven, AFSC/Quakers

Roswell McClelland, (USA), AFSC/Quakers

Marjorie McClelland, (USA), AFSC/Quakers

Rose Naëf, Le Secours Suisse

Lindsey Nobel (USA), AFSC/Quakers

Dr. Olmer, OSE

Anne Marie Im Hof Piquet, Le Secours Suisse

Mr. Rapopoulos

Frederic Reymond, Le Secours Suisse

Julien Samuel, OSE (Jewish)

Martha Sharpe (USA), USC

Waitstill Sharpe (USA), USC Pastor Toureille (France)

Sebastian Steiger, Le Secours Suisse

Pastor Tourille, President, Coordination Committee

Mr. Vaucher, Institute of Health Research, Health Committee

Dr. Julien Weil, OSE (Jewish)

Dr. Joseph Weill (Jewish)

Dr. Wolf, OSE

Dr. René Zimmer, USC, Health Committee (Jewish)

 

 

Ninth Brigade (Mouvement National Belge), Belgium

 

 

Non-Sectarian Anti-NaziLeague to ChampionHuman Rights, established 1934, founded in 1933 as the American League for the Defense of Jewish Rights

Samuel Untermyer

 

 

Notgemeinschaft deutscher Wissenschaftler im Ausland (Emergency Committee for German Scientists Abroad)

 

 

Nováky Concentration Camp Partisans

 

 

Novogrudok Ghetto Underground (Pol., Nowogródek; Novaredok), Grodno Oblast, Belorussia, Underground Resistance, Germans occupied city July 10, 1941, mass escape October 1942, see also Bielski Group/Family Camp

Dr. Jacov Kagan, Po’alei Zion Right

Daniel Ostashinsky, Jewish Council chairman, Betar head, led group with 50 members

Nathan Sucharski

Moma Czorny*, led 20 members

Herzl Nachumovsk Group, 30 members, mostly Betar

Revolt Committee, established September 1942

Dr. Jacov Kagan, Poalei Zion, Central Committee

Rakovsky, Hashomer Hatzair

Yaakov Niwichowicz*, Hashomer Hatzair

Moshe Bursetein+* (Burstein), Betar, member Jewish Council

Berko (Berl) Joselevicz, Maccabee

Yasha Kantarowitz (Kantotorwiez), Poalei Zion

Moshe Liezerovsky, unaffiliated

Reuven Shevkovsky+*

Alter Dvorecky

Kozhuchovsky*

Tcherichovsky*

Orliansky*

Dr. Jakobowicz

Abraham Raruwski

 

 

Nowe Swierzno Camp

Szlomo Szwertok+*, secretary, Ghetto Jewish Council

 

 

NV Group, see Anonymous Group (Naamloze Vennootschap)

 

 

The Oberlaender Trust, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, established 1931 by Gustav Oberlaender, administered by the Carl Schurz Memorial Foundation, disbanded in 1953

 

 

Obshchestuo Razpostranienia Truda Sredi Yevreyev (ORT; Organization for Rehabilitation Through Training)

 

 

Oeuvres d’Aide Sociale Israelite, see Jewish Social Assistance Mission, Marseilles, 1941

 

 

Oeuvres d’Aide Sociale Israelite, Perigueux, 1941-1944

 

 

Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants (OSE), see Children’s Aid Rescue Society, see also Garel Network

 

 

Office of the Representation in Spain of American Relief Organization (ORSARO), established April 1943, funded largely by the JDC

David Blinkenstaff, AFSC

Herbert Katzki, JDC

 

 

Ohel David, Slovakia

Rabbi Amin Frieder (1911-1946), founder

 

 

Olkeniky Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Benjamin Farber

Eliezer Varman

 

 

Opfern-Aufbauen-Leben (Sacrifice-Build-Live), Prague, Czechoslovakia

Dr. Leo Jonowitz, deputy director, fundraising

Otto Zucker, fundraising

 

 

Oradea (Oradea Mare; Hung., Nagyvarád; Ger., Grosswarden), Jewish Council (Zsidó Tanács), Northern Transylvania, Hungary

Dr. Sebastian

Yaakov Mittleman, welfare branch

Kasztenbaum

 

 

Oranje Vrijbuiters (OV; Orange Free Booters), Netherlands

 

 

ORAT, Turkey

Lipa Chaimovic, director

 

 

L’Organisation Juive de Combat (OJC; Jewish Fighting Organization), also known as Armée Juive (AJ; Jewish Army), France

 

 

Organismo de Ayuda a los Victimes Judias de la Guerra en Polonia, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Leon Lopaco

 

 

Organization for Ending Hostilities to German Jews, Great Britain

 

 

Organization for Jewish Migrant Welfare (Organization für Jüdische Wanderfürsorge), Vienna, Austria, established 1930, closed after Anschluss in 1938

 

 

Organization for Rehabilitation Through Training (Labor; ORT), France, Poland, Russia (USSR), established 1880

France: William Oualid

Dr. Aron Syngalowski

 

 

Organization für Jüdische Wanderfürsorge, see Organization for Jewish Migrant Workers, Vienna, Austria

 

 

Organization of Illegal Immigrants (Irgun Olim Bilti Legal’im), Palestine, established early 1930s

 

 

Organization of Polish Jews in Argentina

 

 

Organization of State Zionists, Germany

Georg Karetski, leader

 

 

Organization of the Jews from Württemberg (Gemeinschaft der Wörttembergischen Juden), New York, NY, established 1939

 

 

ORT, see Organization for Rehabilitation Through Training

 

 

OSE (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants), France, see Children’s Aid Rescue Society

 

 

Oszmiana Ghetto Underground

 

 

Leendert Overduin Rescue Network, see Enschede Jewish Council

 

 

Pajeczno Jewish Council, Radom District, Poland

Sholem Weiss, labor department

 

 

Palästina Amt (To Palestine), Germany, see Jewish Agency for Palestine

 

 

Palästina Treuhandstelle, see Paltreu; Palestine Trustee Office

 

 

Palestine Committee for Polish Refugees

Zorach Wahrhaftig, Lithuanian office

 

 

Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC), Palestine, New York, NY, USA, established 1925

Julius Simon, president

Aaron Baroway, secretary

Bernard Flexner, chairman, board of directors

Robert Szold, vice chairman

Benjamin V. Cohen, vice president

Edward M. M. Warburg, vice president

Maurice M. Bourstein, secretary

Walter E. Meyer, treasurer

Laurence H. Marks, assistant treasurer

 

 

Palestine Foundation Fund, Inc. (Karen Hayesod), New York, NY, USA, established 1922, consolidation of Karen Hayesod and American Palestine Appeal

Bernard A. Rosenblat, president

Sarah Behrman, executive secretary

Herman L. Weisman, secretary

Herbert H. Lehman, honorary chairman

Julian W. Mack, honorary chairman

Louis Lipsky, national chairman

Leon Gellman, co-chairman

Israel Goldstein, co-chairman

Edmund I. Kaufman, co-chairman

Louis E. Levinthal, co-chairman

Henry Monsky, co-chairman

Morris Rothenberg, co-chairman

Abba Hillel Silver, co-chairman

David Wertheim, co-chairman

Steven S. Wise (WJC) , co-chairman

Charles Ress, chairman, board of directors

Jacob H. Cohen, treasurer

Abraham Liebovitz, treasurer

Robert Silverman, secretary

Samuel Caplan, associate secretary

 

 

Palestine Landing Organization (Irgun), EZEL, Palestine

Schmuel Tagansky

Eliah Lankin

Mordechai Paikovich

 

 

Palestine Office (Palästina Amt), Jewish Agency for Palestine, Ha’avara Company

 

 

Palestine Office, Prague, Czechoslovaka

Jacob Edelstein

 

 

Palestine Office, Vienna, Austria

Dr. Alois Rothenberg

Ze’ev Willy Ritter, He Halutz

 

 

Palestine Office of Switzerland (Office Palestineien de Suisse)

Chaim Pozner

Samuel Schep

 

 

Palestine Treuhandstelle - see Palestine Trust and Transfer Company, Paltreu

 

 

Palestine Trust and Transfer Company (Paltreu; Palestine Treuhandstelle), Germany, part of Ha’avara Agreement

Max Warburg, founder

Ernst Marcus, director

Gregor Segal, assistant

 

 

Paltreu Company – see Palestine Trust and Transfer Company (Palestine Treuhandstelle)

 

 

Pavlovski Jewish Partisan Unit

 

 

People’s Relief Committee (PRC), Palestine

 

 

P.E.N. American Center, New York, NY, established 1922

Dorothy Thompson

 

 

Perl Transporte (see Af-Al-Pi; “Despite Everything”), London, established fall 1937

 

 

Phi Epsilon Pi Fraternity, established 1904

 

 

Philippine Islands

Alex Frieder

 

 

Physical Education (Organization; Éducation Physique)

 

 

Pilica Ghetto Jewish Council, Radom District, Poland

Council chairman

 

 

Pinsk Ghetto Underground, two underground organizations

Group 1:

Lolik Slutzky, commander, 50 members

Hershl Levin

Shaike Kolodny

Noah Weiner

Aryeh Dolinko

Gleibman

Group 2:

Dr. Prager, commander

 

 

Piotrków Trybunalski, Ghetto Jewish Council, Poland

Zalman Tenenbaum, chairman, Bund

Jacob Berliner+*

 

 

Pobieda Partisan Unit (Lipiczansk Forest), see also Diatlovo (Zhetl) Ghetto Underground

 

 

Polesia Partisans (Family Camp, 350 people)

Ephraim Bakalchok, deputy commander, Voroshilov Division

Abraham Liduvsky (d. 1952)

Leizer Liduvsky

 

 

Polish Council in Lipsk

Ferdinand Chiczewski

 

 

Polish-Jewish War Emergency Fund, UK, under Federation of Polish in Great Britain

 

 

Polish Woman’s Relief Committee, New York, USA

 

 

Portuguese Commission for the Assistance of Jewish Refugees (Commisao Portuguesa de Assistancia aos Judeous Refugiados), Lisbon, Portugal

Moses B. Amzalak

Dr. Augusto d-Esaguy, head (JDC representative)

Samuel Sequerra (JDC representative)

 

 

Portuguese Legation, Budapest, Hungary, 1944-1945

Sampayo Garrido, head of legation (non-Jew)

 

 

Postavy Ghetto Underground, Jews escaped ghetto during action of Decemb er 25, 1942, when ghetto was destroyed

Shmuel H. Zaslavsky, partisan emissary

Avraham Friedman, partisan emissary

Reuven Vant, partisan emissary

 

 

Pracovná Skupina, see Working Group, Slovakia, also Jewish Center, Slovakia

 

 

Prague Transfer Committee, Prague, Czechoslovakia. The Prague Transfer Committee was a subgroup of the Jewish Agency for Palestine.

Dr. Frantisek Friedman

Dr. Leo Hermann

Dr. Franz Kahn

Jakub (Jacob) Edelstein

Dr. Pavel März

Otto Zucker

 

 

President’s Advisory Committee on Political Refugees (PACPR), 1939-1949, non-sectarian private body supported by WJC and JDC

Rabbi Steven Wise, World Jewish Congress

James G. McDonald, chairman (non-Jew)

James M. Speers, treasurer

William E. Speers

 

 

Private Employees’ Union (Einheitsverband der Privatangestellten)

 

 

Provisional Committee for Aid to Jews (Tymczasowy Komitet Pomocy Zydom), Poland, see Zegota

 

 

Pruzana (Pruzhany) Ghetto Jewish Council

Velvel Shreibman, vice chairman

Members of the Council

Yosef Untershul

 

 

Pruzana (Pruzhany) Ghetto Underground, ghetto destroyed January 28-31, 1942

Josef Segal, partisan from Kamin-Koshirsk

Dov Drug

Kupperszhmit

 

 

Rada Glówna Opiekunca (RGO) see Central Welfare Council, Poland

 

 

Rada Pomocy Zydom, see Zegota

 

 

Radom Ghetto Underground, Poland, Underground Resistance

Zalman Borenstein

Leib Borenstein

Yona Borenstein

Noach Szlaperman

 

 

Radomsko Ghetto Jewish Council

Gutgesztalt, chairman

 

 

Radun Ghetto Underground

Moshe Michalowski

 

 

Red Cross Legation, International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) Budapest, Hungary, 1944-1945

Friedrich Born, head, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Geneva, Switzerland

Hans Weyermann, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Geneva, Switzerland

Department A, International Red Cross

Leaders in Department A were Hansi Brand, Sholem Offenbach, Rezo Kasztner, Andre Biss, Sandor Groszman, Dezsö Bilitzer, András Beregi and Andras Fenyo.

Jewish volunteers, Section A (250 volunteers):

Imre Benko (Ernö Teichman)

András Beregi*

Etel Fuksz (Braha Billitzer; 1916-2004), Hanoar Hatzioni

Dr. Adonyahu-Deszö Bilitzer (1913-2005), manager

Dr. László Bisits, volunteer ambulance service

Andreas (Andor) Biss

Hansi Brand (Hajnalka Hartman; 1912-2000), He Halutz, Ihud Mapa’i

Edit Erdös

Professor Adnrej “Feigi” Fa’bry (Endre Feigenbaum)*, Hashomer Hatzair

András Fenyö

Peter Fischer (Fay; 1913-2000), Hashomer Hatzair

Imre Fodor (Amier Doron)

Ella Eléfant Foltyn (1922-2003), Hashomer Hatzair

Vera Görög

Dr. Sándor Grossinger (b. 1913), Hanoar Hatzioni, assistant to Otto Komoly

Yitshak Junger

Otto Komoly+*, head

Tzipora (Erika) Mann+‡* (1925-1945), Hanoar Hatzioni, Swiss Glass House

Tova Növe (Manheim Singer; b. 1932), B’nei Akiva, Swiss Glass House

Shalom (Sandor) Offenbach+ (1899-1958), Ichud, Mapai, Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest, fundraiser, administration, ICRC

Sara Reuveni (Sari Beer; b. 1928), Hashomer Hatsair

Amikam Ronen (Reichman)+ (1927-1999), Hanoar Hatsioni, Tiyul, Underground Ghetto Resistance

Yeshayahu (Sajó) Rosenblum

Janos Sampias

Agnes Steuer (Lajila Arnstein, alias Horvath Eva), Dror Habonim

Endre Steinberger (Andrew E. Stevens, alias Endre Sólyom)

Haya Weisz (Ilona Roth), Hashomir Hatzair

Rudolph Weisz (“Uncle Rudy”), Gordon Circle

Zoltan Weiner, Economic Section

 

 

Refugee Aid Committee (CAR; Comité de Assistance aux Réfugiés, Ouevre de’Entr’aide Francaise Israélite), France, established July 1936

Albert Levy, president

Raymond Raoul Lambert, leader

Gaston Kahn, director

 

 

Refugee Aid Committee, Manila, Philippines, established 1938

Alexander Frieder

Herbert S. Frieder

Philip S. Frieder

 

 

Refugee Aid Committee (Comisia Autonoma de Ajutorare), Bucharest, Romania, established June 1941

Wilhelm Filderman

Fred Saraga

Emil Costiner

Misu Benvenisti

Dr. Cornel Iancu

Arnold Schwefelberg

 

 

Refugee Aid Committee, Nice, see Dubouchage Committee, Nice

 

 

Refugee Aid Committee, Zagreb, Yugoslavia

Dragutin Rosenberg, JDC representative

 

 

Refugee Aid Committees, Kobe, Yokohama and Tokyo, Japan, established December 1939

Ernest Baerwald, leader

 

 

Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), formerly Émigré Charitable Fund (ECF), Australia

 

 

Refugee Children’s Movement (RCM), merged from Children’s Inter-Aid Committee and Movement for the Care of Children from Germany in March 1939

Lorg Gorel, chair

 

 

Refugee Commission of the Jewish Community of Casablanca

Mme. H. Benatar, chairman

 

 

Refugee Committee, Stockholm, Sweden

Gunar Josephson, chairman

Norbert Masur

Kolomon Lauer

 

 

Refugee Economic Corporation (REC) and Émigré Charitable Fund (ECF), of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, Australia, United States, established 1934

Felix M. Warburg, president 1934-1937

Charles J. Liebman, president 1937-1950

Albert D. Lasker, treasurer

Bernard Flexner, vice president

George W. Naumburg, secretary

Emery H. Komolos, assistant secretary

 

 

Refugee Help (Flüchtlingshilfe), Czechoslovakia, established 1933. Refugee Help was established in 1933 after the Nazis came to power in Germany.  It was a Czechoslovakian refugee aid group sponsored by the Women’s International Zionist Organization (WIZO).  It helped German Jewish refugees in Czechoslovakia.

 

 

Refugee Relief Committee, Riga, Latvia

 

 

Refugee Society of Trinidad, Trinidad, established April 1939

Edgar Pereira, president

 

 

Reich League of Jewish Frontline Soldiers (Reichbund Jüdischer Frontsoldaten; RJF), established 1919, dissolved 1989, sixteen regional and 350 local branches, members: 30,000

Leo Lowenstein (1876-1956), founder

 

 

Reich Representative Council of the German Jews (Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden; RV), established September 1933, after 1935 called the Reich Representative Council of the Jews in Germany (Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland; RVE), National Union of Jews in Germany (Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland; RdJD) in 1939

Max M. Warburg (1867-1946), founder

Leo Baeck, president, chairman

Otto Hirsch* (1895-1941), director, special projects

George S. Hirschland, president

Ernst Herzfeld, deputy

Cora Berliner* (1890-1942), social worker, Centralverein, Jüdische Frauenbund

Paul Eppstein, liaison

Rabbi Hugo Hahn

Hanna Karminski* (1897-1942), social worker, Emigration Department

Heinz Kellerman (1910-1998), youth group leader

Käthe Rosenheim (1882-1980), Jewish Children’s Emigration

Julius Seligson*

 

 

Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (Reich Council for Jews in Germany), established 1938

Max M. Warburg (1867-1946), founder

Leo Baeck, president, chairman

Otto Hirsch* (1895-1941), director, special projects

George S. Hirschland, president

Ernst Herzfeld, deputy

Cora Berliner* (1890-1942), social worker, Centralverein, Jüdische Frauenbund

Paul Eppstein, liaison

Rabbi Hugo Hahn

Hanna Karminski* (1897-1942), social worker, Emigration Department

Heinz Kellerman (1910-1998), youth group leader

Käthe Rosenheim (1882-1980), Jewish Children’s Emigration

Julius Seligson*

Subgroup: Central School of Emigration, established January 1936

 

 

Relief and Mutual Aid Committee, Toulouse, France

Isaac Friedman (“Perrin”), secretary

 

 

Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest (Va’ada; Va’adat ha-Ezra ve-he-Hatsala), established 1941, in January 1943 became part of Jewish Agency for Palestine; consisted of: General Zionist; Zionist Association of Hungary; Mizrahi; Zvi; Ha Shomer Ha-Tsa-‘Ir Israel, Ichud

Ottó Komoly* (b. 1892) General Zionists, head, Zionist Association of Hungary

Jenö Frankel, Mizrahi

Ernö (Zvi) Szilágyi+ (b. 1898), Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa’Ir, Palestine Office

Joel Brand (b. 1906), Ihud

Hansi Brank, Ihud

Rezsö (Israel) Kasztner (b. 1906), Ichud, journalist

Samuel Springmann (b. 1900), Ichud

Sandor (Shalom) Offenbach (b. 1896)

Endre Biss

Dr. Miklos (Moshe) Schweiziger, Ihud, Jewish Defense Committee, Budapest

Miklos (Moshe) Kravz (Mizrachi), Budapest Palestine Office (Palamt)

Dov Weiss, secretary

Additional youth leaders after German occupation of March 19, 1944:  Josko Baumer, Uziel Lichtenberg, Moshe Rosenberg, Siegfried (Stephen) Roth, Moshe Schweiger, Dov Weiss

Baroness Edit Weisz supported committee financially

 

 

Relief Campaign for Jewish War Sufferers, Mexico City

 

 

Relief Committee for German Jews, Shanghai, China, established October 1938 (becomes Committee for the Assistance of European Jewish Refugees in Shanghai, CFA, in 1939)

Dr. Karl Marx

 

 

Relief Committee for the German and Polish Refugees, Lisbon, established 1933

Professor Moses B. Amzalek

Dr. Augusto de Esaguy

 

 

Relief Committee for the War-stricken Jewish Population (RELICO), Geneva, Switzerland, active in Portugal, Spain, Tangier & Casablanca, 1939-1945

Dr. Abraham Silberschein, director in Europe (World Jewish Congress)

Isaac Weissman, Lisbon, Portugal

 

 

Relief Council for Jews (RPZ), Poland, functioned in Krakow and Lvov

 

 

Relief Organization of Jews in Germany, (Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden; also Relief Organization of German Jews), established 1901, incorporated into Reich Association of Jews in Germany (Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland) in 1939, closed in 1941

Max Warburg (1867-1946)

Mark Wischnitzer, secretary general

 

 

Relief Organizations for Jewish Refugees Abroad, Montreux, Switzerland (Hilfsverein für Jüdische Flüchtlinge im Ausland; HIJEFS), see also Swiss Aid Society for Jewish Refugees

Recha Sternbuch+

Isaac Sternbuch

Eli Sternbuch

Rabbi Kalmanowitz (Va’ad Ha Hatsala)

Consul Julius Kühl (Polnad)

Consul George (Mandel) Mantello (El Salvador)

Nuncio Philip Bernardini (non-Jew)

Consul Alexander (Aleksander) Lados (Poland)

Consul Rodolfe Hügli (non-Jew; Paraguay)

Consul Dr. Feng Shan Ho (non-Jew; China)

Alfred Silberschein (RELICO, Geneva, Switzerland)

Isaac Lewin, Agudas (NYC)

Chaim Eiss (Agudat)

 

 

Repatriation Committee of the Reichsvertretung (Hauptstelle für Jüdische Wanderfürsorge), Berlin, Germany

 

 

Representation of Polish Jewry (Reprezentacja Zydowsta Polskiego; RZP), London, New York; part of World Jewish Congress (WJC) and Polish Government in Exile, 1943-1945

Arieh Tartakower

Jacob Apenszlak

Dr. Isaac Lewin

Zorach Warhaftig

Kalman Stein

Jacob Kenner

Moses Polakiewicz

 

 

Representative Council for French Jewry (CRIF; Conseil Représentatif des Juifs de France), May 1944

Léon Meier, leader

 

 

Rescue Committee of the Jewish Agency in Turkey, Istanbul (Va’ad ha-Hatsala be-Kushta), established 1943-1945, see Jewish Agency for Palestine

 

 

Rescue Committee of the Orthodox Rabbis in the United States (Va’ad Ha-Hatsala; Emergency Committee for War Torn Yeshivot), established December 1939

Rabbi Eliezer Silver, Cincinnati, founder

Rabbi Chaim Ozer Grodzensky, founder – Vilna office

USA - Rabbi Abraham Kalmanowitz, Aron Kotler, Irving Bunim, Shabse Frankel, Baruch Korf, Michael Tress

Sweden – Wilhelm Wolbe

Geneva, Switzerland – Recha and Isaac Sternbuch (HIJEFS)

Switzerland – Rabbi Eliyahu Botchko, worked with Hilfsverein für Flüchtling in Shanghai (HIJEFS)

Tangier – Renée Reichmann

Turkey – Yaakov Griffel

 

 

Réseau Garel, see Garel Network

 

 

Revenge” Battalion Partisans, Rudniki Forest, Lithuania, see Nekamah Jewish Partisan Unit

 

 

Revisionist New Zionist Movement (NZO), founded Merkaz Le Aliyah in Paris

 

 

Revisionist Party, Hungary

Dr. Imre Kalman, chairman

 

 

Riga Ghetto Police, Latvia, all Jewish police were killed October 1942

 

 

Robinsohn-Strassman Group, see Strassman Group

 

 

Rohatyn Ghetto Jewish Council and Police

 

 

Romanian Jewish Association, Palestine

 

 

Romanian Immigrants’ Association, Palestine

 

Rompalia, Romania (shell organization for NZO and Betar)

Edward Kenner

 

 

Rosenwald Family Association, USA, associated with the National Coordinating Committee (NCC) and National Refugee Service (NRS)

Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932)

William Rosenwald, president

Lessing J. Rosenwald

Marion Rosenwald (Mrs. Max Ascoli)

Adele Rosenwald (Mrs. David M. Levy)

Edith Rosenwald (Mrs. Edgar B. Stern)

 

 

Rubzhewicze Ghetto Underground, Belorussia (Mikulicz Forest), members: 25

Shabtain Fiskin

Josef Fiskin

Judel Garminza

Shimon Shuster, leader

Jacob Ribak, leader

Reuven Port

 

 

Rubzhewicze Partisans, Mikulicz Forest, captured and killed 40 policemen, July 1942

 

 

Rudnicki Forest Partisans, Lithuania

Chiena Borowska, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Tuvia Gelperin, PPA, Vilna Ghetto, CDR Forest Partisans

Hirsh Gordon* (1922-1943), PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Lieb Gordon* (1920-1943), PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Samuel Kaplinsky, PPA, Vilna Ghetto, commanded “To Victory” battalion

Shmerke Katzerginsky, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Raisel Korchak, Hashomer Hatzair, PPA, Vilna Ghetto, Revenge Battalion

Abba Kovner, PPA, Vilna Ghetto, Hashomer Hatzair, forest partisan leader

Mikhail Kovner* (1923-1943), PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Izhak (Kivolski) Kowalski, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Chaim Lazar, Betar, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Mates Levin* (1914-1943), PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Danka Lubotzki* (1920-1943), PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Sonia Madeiskar+* (1914-1944), leader, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Hanan Magid, leabor Zionist, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Izia (Izhak) Matzkewitz* (1923-1943), PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Yashke Raff* (1923-1943), Hashomer Hatzair, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Nissan Resnick, leader Youth Zionist, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Abraham Sutzkever, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Haya Tikwtzinska*, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

David Widuchanski* (1921-1943), PPA, Vilna Ghetto

Louba Ziskowitz*, Betar, PPA, Vilna Ghetto

 

 

Rural and Suburban Settlement Company, Ltd. (RASSCO), affiliated with Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews

 

 

Russian War Relief Committee (RWR), USA, established 1941

Jewish Section - James Rosenberg

 

 

Rzeszów (Risha) Ghetto, Poland, attempted ghetto revolts, 1942

Gorelik*, chief, ghetto police

 

 

Sacrifice-Build-Live, see Opfern-Aufbauen-Leben

 

 

Sasów Jewish Council (Distrikt Galizien)

 

 

Save the Children Fund, Belgium

 

 

Schorr’s 51 Partisan Unit, Slonim area, from Slonim Ghetto, Grodno District, Belorussia, SSR

 

 

Schowberg Créche Rescue Operation (Joodsch Schowberg), Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Worked with five rescue networks to save Jewish children: the NV, ASC, the Jewish Council, Utrechtse Kindercomité, and the Trouw Group.  Helped rescue approximately 385 children.  A total of 600 children were taken out of the Créche.

Staff of he Jewish Council, Amsterdam, Annonymous Coumpany (NV), Utrechtse Kindercomité, Walter Süskind (Jewish)

Joop Woortman, Annonymous Company (NV)

Anne MacLaine Pont, Utrechtse Kindercomité

Fritz Iordens, Utrechtse Kindercomité

Henriëtte Pimentel, Crèche director

Johan Van Hulst, college principal

Dr. Gesina Van Der Molen, teacher in college, member Trouw Rescue Group

Virrie Cohen (Jewish), nurse, Crèche director

David Cohen (Jewish), co-chairman, Jewish Council

Piet Meerburg

 

 

Schutzverband für Auslander, Vienna, Austria

 

 

Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindbund (SIG), Zurich, Switzerland

Sally Mayer

 

 

Second Commando of the Bayard Irregular Corps, see Hagenau Company, France

 

 

Second FTP-MOI Detachment (Jewish Second Detachment)

 

 

Secours Mutuel (Mutual Aid), Belgium, helped Jewish Defense Committee (CDJ) with aid

 

 

Secours National, see National Rescue Organization, France

 

 

Secours Populaire (Popular Aid), Belgium, helped Jewish Defense Committee (Comité de Défense des Juifs; CDJ)

 

 

Secours Sioniste (Zionist Aid), Belgium, helped Jewish Defense Committee (Comité de Défense des Juifs; CDJ)

 

 

Secours Suisse (Swiss Rescue Organization), France

 

 

Secret Army (Armée Secrèt; AS)

 

 

Sela Organization, Budapest, Hungary, rescue organization

Judit Barak (Judit Bischitz), Hashomer Hatzair

Mordehai “Mordi” (István) Fodor* (1921-1944), Hashomer Hatzair

Mordehai (Miklós) Fraenkel+ (b. 1923), Hashomer Hatzair

 

 

Self-Aid Association of Jews from Bohemia-Moravia and Slovakia in England

 

 

Sered Concentration Camp Partisans

 

 

Sernik Ghetto Underground, escape September 27, 1942, 272 Jews escaped, see also Voroshilov Jewish Partisans and Misiura Unit (Southern Polesia), Biegma Brigade

Feivel Glazer (Glazer Misiura Partisan Cell)

Ephraim Bakalczuk, leader

Nachman Zilberfarb

S. H. Galecky

 

 

Service André, Marseilles, Aix-en-Provence, France.  Service André was an international rescue organization based in Marseilles.

Joseph Bass (alias Mr. André)

Father de Parceval (Dominican prior; interned; non-Jew)

Father Bremond (Jesuit, non-Jew)

Father Marie-Benoit (Capuchin monk; DELASEM; non-Jew)

Pastor Hevze (Protestant; Reformed Church in Marseilles; interned and deported; non-Jew)

Pastor Severin Lemaire, Marseilles (non-Jew)

Joseph Lasalarie (attorney)

Murzi (attorney)

Israel Salzer (Chief Rabbi of Marseilles)

Angelo Donati (banker), rescue activist (DELASEM)

Chief Rabbi Rene Hirschler*

 

 

Service Clandestine de Placement d’Enfants de la WIZO (Clandestine Service for the Placement of Children of WIZO)

 

 

Service d’Évacuation et de Regroupment, see Evacuation and Relocation Service, France

 

 

Service Juridique pour les Refugees Allemand, Paris, 1935

 

 

Service Social d’Aide aux Émigrants, see Social Service for Assistance to Emigrants, France

 

 

Shanghai Askenazi Collaborating Relief Association (SACRA), Shanghai, China

 

 

Shanghai Jewish Volunteer Corps, Shanghai, China

 

 

Shimoni Group, Budapest, Hungary

Dov Shimoni, leader and founder

Joseph Bernáth

Moshe (Miklós) Eisenberg* (1922-1943), Hashomer Hatzair

Tibor Fábián

Andras Fleischer

György Fleischer

 

 

Shveiko Jewish Partisan Unit

 

 

Sigma Alpha Mu Fraternity, Indianapolis, IN, established 1909

 

 

La Sixième (The Sixth), Paris, France

 

 

Slonim Ghetto Jewish Council, Grodno Oblast, Belorussia

Gershon Kwint

Max Rabinowicz

Wolf Berman, first chairman

 

 

Slonim Ghetto Underground, Grodno Oblast (District), Belorussia, SSR, Anti-Fascist Committee established November 1941, see also Schorr’s 51 Partisan Unit

Zorach Kremen, leader, founder “Szczors 51”

Aharon Band, leader, founder “Szczors 51”

Abraham Bluovitz

Niunia Tsirinski (Munia Cerinsky, Nionia Cirznsky)

Aviezer Imber

Arik Stein

Henik Malach (Heniek Mal’ach)*

Natan Liker

Yehudit Graf

Zehava Rawki

Josef Rachmilevicz, Derzhinsky Partisans

 

 

Sobibor Death Camp, Poland, prisoner revolt and escape, 1943

Leon Feldhendler+* (d. 1945), leader of revolt, former chairman Zólkieka Ghetto Council

Alexander (Sasha Pachelski)+, leader of revolt

 

 

Social Democratic Relief Committee

 

 

Social Institute of Czechoslovakian Jewry

 

 

Social Service for Assistance to Emigrants (Service Social d’Aide aux Émigrants), France

 

 

Sociedad Israelita, Guatemala

 

 

Société d’Émigration et de Colonisation JuiveEMCOL

 

 

Society for the Colonization of Bohemia

 

 

Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia (SOCOBO), La Paz, Bolivia, established 1941

Mauricio Hochchild

Manfred Wihl

 

 

Sociedad de Protection a los Immigrantes Israelitas, “SOPROTIMIS,” Buenos Aires, Argentina

B. Mellibovsky

 

 

Sociedad de Protection a los Immigrantes Israelitas, “SOPROTIMIS,” La Paz, Bolivia

Mauricio Hochchild

Manfred Wihl

 

 

Sociedad de Protecto a Infancio Israelita Descamparada, Brazil, see Lar de Crianca Israelita (Children’s Home), Brazil

 

 

Sociadade de Beneficente Israelita e Amparo aos Immigrantes, Rio de Janiero, Brazil

 

 

Society for Aid to Immigrants (SSAE), France

 

 

Society for the Help and Protection of Poor Jewish Children in Lithuania, Kaunas (Kovno), Lithuania

 

 

Society for the Preservation of Health Among the Jews in Poland (Towarzyczywo Zdrowia Ludnosci Zydowskiej w Polse; TOZ), Warsaw, Poland, established 1921 by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC)

 

 

Society for the Protection of Jewish Immigrants (SOPROTIMIS), established 1922

 

 

Solidarité Juive (SJ; Jewish Solidarity), Belgium, established late 1930s

 

 

Solidarity (Solidarité), France, established August 1940 by the French Communist Organization, members: 300

Sophie Schwartz, leader

Bernard Borenstein, Youth Section, Paris

Joseph Bursztyn, organizer

David Diamant, trade union activities

Robert Endewelt, leadership youth section

Alfred Grant

Sivek Kirszenbaum, military commander, liaison officer

Yoel Korman, leadership

Mounie Nadler, propaganda

Samuel Radinski, leadership, arrested

André Radinsky, youth section

Jacques Ravine, leader

Abraham Rayski, leadership

Jean Claude Schwartz, youth section leadership

Pierre Smolinsky, youth section UGIF, employee

Emile Somer, youth section, trade union activities

Georges Tachnoff, youth section, leadership

Simon Zaidov, former member, International Brigade, deported and escaped from Auschwitz

 

 

Sosnowitz (Sosnowiec) Ghetto, Poland, uprising August 1, 1943

Zvi Dumski+* (d. 1943), Hashomer Hatzair, founder Ghetto Underground

Józek (Azriel) Kozuch*

 

 

South African Jewish Board of Deputies (JBD), organized South African Jewish War Appeal

 

 

South African Jewish War Appeal (JWA), organized by the South African Jewish Board of Deputies

 

 

South African Zionist Federation (SAZF), established 1905

 

 

Sozialer Hilfsverein für Juden der Slovakei, Kosice

 

 

Spanish Consulate, Salonika, Greece

Solomon Ezrati

 

 

Spanish Legation, Budapest, Hungary. The Spanish Legation in Budapest was headed by Ambassador Don Angel Sanz-Briz.  Like the other neutral legations, he issued protective papers to several thousand Jews residing in Budapest.  He also maintained protective houses in which refugee Jews could be afforded some protection against Arrow Cross and Nazi raids.

Sanz-Briz employed a number of Jewish volunteers.  Among them were:

Jean Greenstein (Jenö “Icu” Grünstein), took refugees to Spanish embassy

 

 

“Spartak” (Spartacus) Brigade Partisans, Koziany Forest, organized August 1942, 500 partisans, Jews and non-Jews

Lieb Voliak+*, Hechalutz, commander Jewish Battalion

Lifszyc

Vidz

Yaakov Natkowicz*, from Koziany, platoon commander

Bruce Cimmer*, platoon commander, rescued 40 Jews from Glubok Ghetto

 

 

Special Department on Jewish Questions in the Liberated Territories (Serviciu special pentru problemele evreesti din teritoriile eliberate)

 

 

State Council (Statni Rada), Czechoslovak Government in Exile

Ernst Frischer, former head of the Jewish Party in Czechoslovakia, 1935-1939, representative of Jewish Groups

 

 

Staatszionistische Organisation, Germany, established May 1933, dissolved August 1938

George Karetski *1878-1947), chairman of the Jewish Communists of Berlin, 1925-1937, member of the Community Board, 1925-1937

 

 

Stern Bureau, Austria

Berthold (Bernard) Storfer*

 

 

Stern Group (H., Lohamei Herut Israel [LEHI] Fighters for Freedom of Israel), Yishuv Armed Underground Movement

Abraham Stern (“Yair”; 1907-1942), founder

 

 

Stolin Ghetto Police, members underground resistance

   

 

Stolin Ghetto Underground

 

 

Stolpce Ghetto Underground, two groups including members of Hashomer Hatzair, Betar, Communist Party

Josef Harkawy, leader, escaped, became partisan in Kopyl Forest

Aziel Tunik, leader

Jacob Spiegel, leader

Hersh Posesorsky, leader

Elimelech Machtey

 

 

Strassman Group (Robinsohn-Strassman Group), Germany, established 1934, ended 1942

Dr. Hans Robinsohn (1897-1981), journalist, founder

Ernst Strassman+ (1897-1958; non-Jew), founder, Berlin judge and lawyer

Dr. Oskar Stark (1890-1970; non-Jew), journalist

 

 

Supreme Council of the Jewish Religious Congregations of Bohemia, Moravia & Silesia (JRC; Kulturgemeinde). Publication: Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt Zidovske Liste. 

Dr. Emil Kafka*, chairman

Dr. Frantisek Weidmann*, secretary, later chairman

Jacob Edelstein*, deputy chairman (Zentralstelle), Zionist leader, Palestine Office, Prague

Otto Zucker (Karen Hayesod), fundraising, director of Give! Build! Live! Fund

Dr. Karl Fleishman, central secretary

Hebert Langer, deputy central secretary, Council of Elders, 1943

Dr. Adolf Benes, deputy central secretary

Dr. Oskar Singer, publications editor

Dr. Franz Kahn*, secretary, Zionist Organization

Marie Schmolka

Hanna Steiner*

Lazar Moldovan

Heinz Schuster

Dr. O Guth, Czech Jewish Movement

Dr. Neuwirth, Administration Department, Czech Jewish Movement

Bitterman, Czech Jewish Movement

Hannus Bonn, head, Emigration Department (90 persons)

Dr. Karl Stein, Department for Provinces

Eric Kraus, Organization Office

Dr. Erwin Ziemlich, Personnel Office

Dr. Otto Fischer, Statistics

Richard L. Friedman, Relations

Friedrich Prossnitz, financial management

Dr. Franz Friedman, Transfer Office

Abraham Fixler, Emigration

Alois Fischl, Palestine Office

Dr. Leo Janowitz, Department of Certificates, fundraising

Dr. Erik Munk, Emigration

Joseph Lichtenstein, Labor Transports

Dr. Wilhelm Katz, Social Services

Dr. Kurt Heller, Relief and Care of Poor

Miroslav Körper, Administration, Care of Sick

Salo Krämer, Council of Elders, 1943

Dr. Victor Muller, Social Services

 

 

Swedish Legation Jewish Staff (volunteers), Budapest, Hungary, 1944-1945. The Swedish Legation in Budapest began issuing protective papers in the spring of 1944.  The three individuals at the embassy who were most responsible for this activity were Per Anger, Raoul Wallenberg, and Waldemar Langlet of the Swedish Red Cross.  Each of these individuals employed hundreds of Jewish volunteers, mostly pioneer Zionist youths, to distribute these documents.

Vilmos Langefeld+*, Raoul Wallenberg’s staff, arrested with Raoul Wallenberg January 1945, presumed killed

Thomas Veres+, Raoul Wallenberg’s staff/photographer

Bela Elk*

Elizabeth Kasser+, Raoul Wallenberg’s interpreter, wife of Red Cross delegatge Alexander Kasser

György Orosz

Hugo Wahl

Baruch (Bruce) Teicholz

Belá Forgács

Vilmos Forgács

 

 

Swienciany Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Shaike Gertman

D. Yohai Yoske Rudnicki

Moshe Szotan

Yitzhak Rudnicky (Arad)

Yerchmiel Maceikin

 

 

Swierzhen Ghetto Underground, Belorussia

Benjamin Vielitovsky, Hashomer Hatzair

Monik Joselewsky (Yosselevsky), Hashomer Hatzair

 

 

Swierzhen Work Camp, Belorussia

Hersh Posesorsky, Partisan Zhukov Unit, led escape, 200 Jewish presoners in two groups escaped January 28, 1943 and met with partisan groups

 

 

Swiss Aid Society for Jewish Refugees (Schweizerischer Hilfsverein für Jüdische Flüchtlinge im Ausland; HIJEFS), Montreux, Switzerland, established 1941, see also Relief Organizations for Jewish Refugees Abroad, Montreux, Switzerland

Recha Sternbuch (1905-1971)

Isaac Sternbuch

Eli Sternbuch

Herman Landau

Chaskel Rand

Dr. Reuben Hecht

Angelo Donati (DELASEM)

Hugo Donnenbaum

Dr. Shaul Weingort

Leibish Rubinfeld

Wolf Erlanger

Jacob Erlanger

Mr. Pines

S. S. Guggenheim

 

 

Swiss Committee of Assistance for the Jews in Hungary (Comité de Entr’aide Suisse pour les Juifs en Hongrie; Schweizerisches Hilfskomitee für die Juden in Ungarn), Zurich, Switzerland, established March 1944.  The Swiss Committee of Assistance for the Jews in Hungary was established in March 1944 to help the beleaguered Jews of Hungary.  They provided money for relief and rescue work.

Dr. Mihály Banyai

 

 

Swiss Legation, Jewish Staff and Volunteers (members of Underground), “Glass House,” Budapest, Hungary, headed by Harald Feller and Carl Lutz (non-Jews)

György Adler (1920-1948), Hashomer Hatzair

Dr. Ester Alexander+ (Vera Neuman; 1929-2005), Hashomer Hatzair

Moshe (Pil) Alpan+ (1918-2006), Hashomer Hatzair

Tova Alpan+ (1924-1995), Hashomer Hatzair

Yehuda (György) Alpár (b. 1928)

Moshe (György) Angelusz (b. 1924), Maccabi Hatzair

Yitzak “Bukszi” Arbel (István Baumöhl; b. 1925), Hanoar Hatzioni

Zehava Arieli+‡ (Agnes Wertheimer; b. 1925), Betar

Dr. Alice Tova Balázs (Alice Edinger; b. 1928), Hanoar Hatzioni

Joseph Bar-Joel+‡ (László Kandel; b. 1924), Hanoar Hatzioni

David Bar Sela (Peter Bisseliches)+ (1923-1999), independent

Zehava Becker (Alena Sáfár; b. 1921), Betar

Mordehai Ben-David (Tibor Horovitz; 1923-1995), Hanoar Hatzioni

Marta Ben-Shalom (Márta Gut; b. 1922), Hashomer Hatzair

Rafi (Friedl) Ben-Shalom

Tamar Ben-Shalom (Kato Brunner)

Eliezer Ben-Yitzhak (Sandor Kaufman; 1926-1971), Hanoar Hatzioni

Frigyes (Avraham) Bettelhaim, Hanoar Hatzioni

Oszkar „Oszi“ Biederman (1913-2005), Hanoar Hatzioni

Adoniyahu Billitzer (Dajanus), Hanoar Hatzioni

Sándor (Haim) Blau* (1924-1944), Maccabi Hatzair

Joseph Dotán (József Vajda; b. 1923)

Hava (Weisz) Eisenberg (Éva Gábor; b. 1923), Hanoar Hatzioni

Baruh (Ferenc “Feri”) Eisinger (b. 1927), Maccabi Hatzair

Klári Elfer (Karni), Hashomer Hatzair

Erzebet (Elizabeth) Eppler (1921-1999), Hazalah, Gordon Circle

Viktor Farkas (Avigdor Ben-Ze’ev; 1926-2004), Maccabi Hatzair

Árpád Federit (1891-1971), Gordon Circle

Benjamin Feigenbaum (1923-1981), Bnei Akiva, Hashomer Hatzair

Endre Feigenbaum (Professor Andrej “Feigi” Fabry, b. 1919), Hashomir Hatzair

Edit Fischer (Dr. Hava Eichler; b. 1923), Hanoar Hatzioni

Pal Fleischer (Mordchay), Hashomer Hatzair

Ella Elefánt Foltyn (1922-2003), Hashomer Hatzair

Jenö (Eugene) Fraenkel (1897-1986), Mizrahi

Lili (Ahuva) Fraenkel (1906-1958), Mizrahi

Jancsu Freid (Ya’akov Foren; 1924-1999), Hashomer Hatzair

Avigdor “Andi” (Andras) Freiman* (1922-1945), Betar

Tzvi (Tamás) Freiman (b. 1922), Betar

Tibor (Meir) Friedman (b. 1925), Bnei Akiva

Viktor Friedman (Avigdor Yitzhak; 1914-1982), Mizrahi

Herman Sandor Fröhlich (Tzui Efrati; 1923-1991), Hashomer Hatzair

Alex Fürst, Hatzalah

Dr. Endre Gellert (Dr. Eliyahu Galor; 1917-1997)

Alexander (Sandor “Sanyi”) Grossman (1909-2003), Hashomer Hatzair

David (Gur) Grosz, Hashomer Hatzair

Hadasa Hantos (Edit Singer), Hanoar Hatzioni

Simcha Hunwald*, Hashomer Hatzair

Klári Karni (Elfer Klari), Hashomer Hatzair

David Klein, Hazalah

“Little Skull” Klein, Hazalah

Yeshayahu Lantos, Bnei Akiva

Ágnes Levi (Agnes Nahman), Hanoar Hatzoini

Dr. Alexander (Sándor) Nátán, Hatzioni Hallalim

Dr. Peretz (Perec) Révécz, Zionist Youth Resistance, Gordonia-Makabi Hatzair

Yitzhak “Izsu” Rosenfeld

Dr. Siegfried (Stephan) Roth

Judith Sari (Judit Schaeffer), Maccabi Hatzair

Laszló Swartz (Eliyahu “Eli”)

Ágnes Szandel (Neska Goldfarb), Dror Habonim

Tibor Szemere

Dr. Károly Szendrö, Gordon Circle

Ernö Teichman (Efriam Efra Agmon; b. 1922), Hashomer Hatzair

Yehoshua (Herman) Weiss, Hashomer Hatzair

Arthur Weisz

Sara Yahin-Kemeny (Sara Schwartz), Hashomir Hatzair

 

 

Swiss Refugee Aid Center (Schweizerische Zentralstelle für Flüchtlingshilf), Zurich

 

 

Szarkowszczyzna Ghetto Jewish Council

Berman, chairman

 

 

Szarkowszczyzna Ghetto Underground, Belorussia, escape July 19, 1942, 1,200 Jews escaped

Zimmer

 

 

“Szczors 51” Partisan Unit

Zorach Kremen, leader, founder

Aharon Band, leader, founder

 

 

Tangier Committee for Aid to Refugees (Comité de Assistance aux Refugiés Tangier), Hungary

György Gergely

 

 

Tarnów Ghetto, Poland, uprising September 2, 1943, Jewish Council (first), underground organized, Fall 1942, Ha-shomer Ha-Tsair, Jewish Ghetto Police

 

 

Tel-Hai Fund, Inc., London, England, established 1929; New York, NY, USA, established 1035

Morris M. Rose, president

Samuel Katz, secretary

Louis I. Newman, honorary president

David S. Shecket, chairman

Louis Scadron, treasurer

Mrs. Maurice Lewis, chairwoman, ladies guild

K. B. Friedman, chairman, advisory board

Nathan Coplan, chairman, cultural commission

Louis Grodsky, chairman, youth league

Ben Zion Hebrony, executive secretary

 

 

Témoignage Chrétien, see Christian Friendship

 

 

Temporary Mutual Aid (L’Entraide Temporaire), France

 

 

Terezin (Theresienstadt) Ghetto Jewish Council, Czechoslovakia

Jacob Edelstein+* (1903-1944), chairman

Otto Zucker+*

Paul Epstein+* (1901-1944), chairman

 

 

Tiomkin Ambulatory, France, 1940

 

 

TIYYUL (“Excursion”), Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Slovakia, Romania

 

 

To Victory Jewish Partisan Battalion, Vilna, Lithuania

Shmuel Kaplinski, commander

Heena Borovska, commissar

 

Towarzystwo Popierania Rolnictwa (TOPOROL), Poland. TOPOROL smuggled Jews out of various ghettoes in Poland.

 

 

TOZ, see Society for the Preservation of Health Among the Jews in Poland (Towarcztwo Zdrowia Ludnosci Zydowskiej w Polse), Warsaw

 

 

Transmigration Bureau, see American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC)

 

 

Treblinka Death Camp, Poland, 750 prisoners rebelled and 70 escaped, camp revolt fighters August 1943

Dr. Julian Choronzitsky* (d. 1943)

Marceli Galevski* (d. 1943), organized prisoner revolt

Yankel Wianik, from Brisk

Sudowitz* (first name unknown), from Warsaw

Zelo Block, Jewish officer in the Czech Army

 

 

Trust and Transer Office Haavara, LTD

 

 

Tuchin (Pol., Tyczyn) Ghetto Rovno Oblast (District), Równe District, Ukrain Tuchin Jewish Council, Ukraine, SSR, uprising September 24-25, 1942

Gecel Schwartzman*, chairman

Meir Himmelfarb, deputy chairman

 

 

Turda, Hungary, Rescue Operations

Ben-Ephraim

Berl Schieber

Egon Roth

 

 

Ukrainian Central Council (Ukrainska Rada Glowna)

 

 

Unidad Associacao Beneficente Israelita, Brazil

Dr. Paul Zander, president

Dr. Ludwig Lorch, Sao Paulo

 

 

Union Central Israelita Polaca en la Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina

 

 

Union for Refugees in France

 

 

L’Union des Juifs pour la Resistance et Mutual Secours (see Union of Jews for Resistance and Mutual Aid), France, established 1941

 

 

Union de la Jeunesse Juive, France

Jacques Kot

Francis Chapochnik

 

 

Union for Refugees in France

 

 

Union Général des Israëlites de France (UGIF; General Union of French Jews), North (UGIF-N) and South (UGIF-S), 1941-1944

UGIF North:

Albert Levy, president

Raymond Geissman, leader

André Baur*, vice president

George Edinger, chairman, replaced Baur September 1943

Raymont Paul Lambert, general administrator

Maurice Brenner, arrested September 3, 1943

Madame Getting, council member, director of Section 42

Armand Katz, secretary to André Baur

Marcel Levy, supply service (Section 4)

Dr. Eugene Minkowski, (OSE)

Dr. Alfred Morali, board member

Fernand Musnik*, arrested September 3, 1943 (member of EIF, La Sixième, rescued children, got false papers, took across border, worked with Amelot)

Lucienne Scheid-Haas, board member

Juliette Stern, directed social services (placing children, Section 42)

Marcel Stora, board of directors, Group I

Albert Weill, board member

Dr. Benjamin Weill-Hallé, board member

UGIF – South (unoccupied France); offices in Marselles, Lyon, Vichy, Toulouse, Brive, Limoges, Périgeux, Montpellier, Lozère, Ales; began operations in Spring 1942:

Ramond-Raoul Lambert, leader

Albert Levy, leader

Wladimir Schah (HICEM, France)

Raphael Spanien (HICEM, France)

Gaston Kahn (CAR)

Andre Lazard

Laure Weill

Robert Gamzon (French Jewish Scouts, EIF)

Maurice Brenner (social inspector, Lambert’s secretary, JDC representative)

Jules Jefroykin (social inspector, JDC representative)

Raymond Geissman (leader, September 1943)

Professor Fernand Carcassonne (September 1943)

Georges Edinger

Jeremie Hemardinquer

Rabbi René Samuel Kapel

Dr. Joseph “Jomi” Milner, secretary general

Professor David Olmer

Chief Rabbi Israel Salzer

Albert Akerberg, social services

Dr. Freddy Menachem

Toni Stern, UGIF board of directors

Jacques Pulver, social services

Marcel Stora, general administrator, arrested September 3, 1943

First section – Family (EFI, Chief Rabbi’s Fund)

Second section – Labor (Vocational Training, old ORT)

Third section – Health (OSE, homes, children’s rescue, JDC), Dr. Eugene Minkowski, Dr. Joseph Weill, Joseph Milner, Georges Garel

Fourth section – Youth (Scouts/EIF, La Sixième)

Fifth section – Foreign Jews (CAR and FSJF, supported by JDC)

Sixth section – Emigration (HICEM)

Seventh section – Education (Alliance Israelite Universelle)

UGIF – Organizational Structure:

Group I – General Services.  Leadership, personnel, card index, legal department, food to camps, newsletter, liaison with French and Germans.  In charge – Marcel Stora.

Group II – Administration and Finances.  Finances, properties, supplies, etc.  In charge – Georges Edinger.

Group III – Social Services.  Employment, youth welfare, children’s homes in provinces, etc.  In charge – Juliet Stern.

Group IV – Vocational Training and Youth Activities.  OSE, ORT, Jewish agricultural workers in Ardennes area.  In charge – Fernand Musnik.

Group V – Clinics and Children’s Homes.  Medical services, etc.  In charge – Benjamin Weill-Halle, Dr. Morali.

Group VI – Canteens and Food Supplies.  Food supplies, equipment, canteens, kitchens.  In charge – Alber Weill.

Group VII – Supplies.

 

 

Union of Cooperative Kassas in Poland, Verband, Poland

 

 

Union of Jewish Communities (Federatia Uniunilor de Comunitati Evreesti), Romania

Wilhelm Filderman

Rabbi Alexander Safran

Moses Ussoskin

 

 

Union of Jewish Communities in Yugoslavia

Sima Spitzer, secretary

 

 

Union of Jewish Communities of Italy (Unione delle Communita Israelitche Italiani; Unione)

Raphael Centoni, president

Lelio Vittorio Valobra, vice president, DELASEM

Enrico Luzzatto, DELASEM

 

 

Union of Jewish Women of France for Palestine (Union des Femmes Juives de France pour la Palestine; UJF), France, part of WIZO, established 1924

 

 

Union of Jews for Resistance and Mutual Aid (Union des Juifs pour la Résistance et l’Entr’aide; UJRE), Paris, France, founded National Movement against Racism (Mouvement National contre le Racism)

Alex Chertok

Suzanna Spaaz

Thérèse Pierre

 

 

Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada (Agudath ha-Rabbonim), offices in New York City, NY, USA, Switzerland, Sweden, Turkey, Tangiers, established 1902; established Va’ad ha Hatsala in 1939 (worked with Hebrew Committee for National Liberation), see Vaad Hahatzala (Research Council)

 

 

Union of Russian Jews in Berlin, Germany

   

 

Union of Swiss Jewish Welfare Societies (ISRAV), Zurich, Switzerland.